Table 6.

Attributed causes of death in lupus with nephritisa

Main Cause of Death Childrenb Adultsc Mayo Clinic
Renal failured48 (38%)94 (28%)15 (10%)
Infections46 (37%)104 (31%)16 (11%)
Active lupus, other organse21 (17%)42 (13%)9 (6%)
IHD/CVA2 (1.6%)12 (4%)45 (29%)
Pulmonary embolus2 (1.6%)9 (3%)0
Pulmonary hypertension2 (1.6%)00
Malignancy009 (6%)
Unrelated causes020 (6%)0
Other and unknown5 (4%)52 (16%)59 (38%)
Total (deaths) 126 333 153
  • a Note that the adult data, and some of the papers included in the pediatric analysis, include some patients without nephritis. IHD, ischemic heart disease; CVA, cerebrovascular accident.

  • b Collected data from literature on 800 children with lupus.

  • c From Karsh, Rosner, and Wallace, summarized in reference 1.

  • d Renal failure has been taken to equal “death” for the purposes of this analysis, whereas in practice most patients are treated by dialysis and/or transplantation. Some have in fact died, but it is impossible to derive exactly how many in several of the series reported here. In the Mayo Clinic data, actual death only is recorded.

  • e Central nervous system, lung, heart, and gut in order of frequency.