Table 3.

Factors that increase the risk for lithium toxicitya

Anorexia
Cystic fibrosis
Decreased effective circulating volume
  • cirrhosis

  • congestive heart failure

  • nephrotic syndrome

Decreased dietary sodium intake
Diabetes insipidus
Diabetes mellitus
Gastroenteritis
Infections
Medications
  • angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors

  • cyclosporine

  • diuretics: loop diuretics and thiazides

  • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

  • tetracycline

Overdose
Renal insufficiency
Schizophrenia
Surgery
Volume depletion
  • a Data from references 2, 3, and 34