Table 1.

Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients referred to the nephrologist at a tertiary care centera

CharacteristicLate Referralb (n = 30)Early Referralc (n = 105)P Value
aHMO, health maintenance organization; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; IDS, individual disease severity.
bLate referral, <4 mo before initiation of dialysis.
cEarly referral, >4 mo before initiation of dialysis.
Mean age ± SD (yr)55 ± 1761 ± 150.08
Gender (female)46%53%0.50
White race53%54%0.52
Insurance0.04
Medicare20%45%
private23%28%
HMO33%15%
Medicaid17%8%
none7%4%
Diabetes mellitus as cause of ESRD40%36%0.70
IDS score
zero to one10%8%
two56%55%0.80
three33%37%