Table 1.

Clinical characteristics of type 1 patients (stratified by AER levels) and nondiabetic healthy control subjectsa

Type 1 Diabetic Patients
CharacteristicNormoalbuminuria ≤20 (n = 323)AER (μg/min) Microalbuminuria 20 to 200 (n = 79)Macroalbuminuria ≥200 (n = 52)Healthy Control Subjects (n = 58)>P Valueb
aAER, albumin excretion rate; BMI, body mass index; SPB, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin.
bOne-way ANOVA.
cP < 0.05 versus groups 3 and 4.
dP < 0.05 versus groups 2 and 3.
eP < 0.001 versus groups 2 and 3.
fP < 0.001 versus groups 1 and 2.
gP < 0.001 versus other groups.
hKruskal—Wallis and Mann—Whitney U tests, values expressed as median (95% confidence interval).
Gender (M/F)160/16332/4727/2519/39NS
Age (yr)33.6 ± 10.2c33.5 ± 8.7c37.9 ± 8.636.9 ± 7.60.02
Age at onset of diabetes (yr)17.9 ± 9.1d15.0 ± 9.313.4 ± 7.50.006
Diabetes duration (yr)17.0 ± 10.0e21.1 ± 9.027.4 ± 7.40.0001
BMI (kg/m2)23.2 ± 2.823.2 ± 2.724.5 ± 2.725.8 ± 3.5f0.0001
SBP (mmHg)121 ± 15e128 ± 15142 ± 21g124 ± 170.0001
DBP (mmHg)77 ± 10e81 ± 11089 ± 14g81 ± 80.0001
Serum creatinine (mg/dl)h0.870.911.8g0.88
(0.84 to 0.90)(0.86 to 0.97)(0.80 to 2.90)0.84-0.900.0001
HbA1c (%)7.9 ± 1.48.0 ± 1.78.9 ± 1.4f5.2 ± 0.80.03
Prevalence of hypertension (%)10.620.484.6X2 = 47.4, 0.0001
Prevalence of retinopathy (absent/background/proliferative) (%)64.4/19.5/16.140.8/30.6/28.60/16.7/83.3X2 = 58.2, 0.0001
AER (μg/min)h10.751.1473.20.0001
(6.6 to 17.9)(38.6 to 63.5)(387.6 to 713.1)