Table 2.

Factors associated with pre-ESRD hypoalbuminemia, hematocrit <28%, and EPO use among patients beginning dialysis in the United Statesa

CharacteristicHypoalbuminemiab (n = 67,841)Hematocrit <28% (n = 117,835)EPO Use (n = 117,835)
a155,076 patients who began dialysis between April 1, 1995 and June 30, 1997. ref., reference. Other abbreviations as in Table 1.
bHypoalbuminemia was defined as serum albumin below the lower limit of normal recorded in the HCFA 2728 Form in each patient.
cIt includes retired due to age/preference, retired due to disability, and medical leave of absence.
Age (ref. = 18 to 39 yr)
40 to 641.00 (0.95 to 1.06)0.78 (0.75 to 0.82)1.00 (0.96 to 1.06)
65+0.91 (0.86 to 0.97)0.64 (0.62 to 0.67)1.00 (0.94 to 1.05)
Female (ref. = male)1.20 (1.16 to 1.24)1.15 (1.12 to 1.18)1.28 (1.24 to 1.32)
Race (ref. = Caucasian)
African-American1.07 (1.03 to 1.11)1.40 (1.36 to 1.44)0.84 (0.81 to 0.87)
other race1.12 (1.06 to 1.20)1.33 (1.27 to 1.39)0.94 (0.90 to 1.00)
Insurance status (ref. = private)
Medicare only1.19 (1.13 to 1.26)1.12 (1.08 to 1.17)0.76 (0.72 to 0.79)
Medicaid only1.27 (1.19 to 1.35)1.22 (1.16 to 1.27)0.66 (0.63 to 0.70)
Medicare and Medicaid1.27 (1.20 to 1.35)1.11 (1.06 to 1.16)0.80 (0.76 to 0.84)
Veterans Affairs and other insurance(s)1.09 (1.04 to 1.14)1.02 (0.99 to 1.06)0.89 (0.86 to 0.93)
none1.37 (1.28 to 1.47)1.34 (1.27 to 1.41)0.49 (0.45 to 0.52)
Employment status (ref. = employed)
unemployed1.20 (1.14 to 1.27)1.00 (0.96 to 1.04)0.89 (0.85 to 0.94)
otherc1.12 (1.08 to 1.17)0.92 (0.89 to 0.95)1.04 (1.00 to 1.08)
Diabetes (ref. = nondiabetic)1.70 (1.64 to 1.75)0.98 (0.96 to 1.00)1.18 (1.15 to 1.22)
Inability to transfer (ref. = ability to transfer)1.62 (1.38 to 1.91)1.04 (0.93 to 1.15)0.84 (0.74 to 0.96)
Inability to ambulate (ref. = ability to ambulate)1.72 (1.57 to 1.88)0.99 (0.93 to 1.05)0.86 (0.79 to 0.92)
Hemodialysis (ref. = peritoneal dialysis)1.70 (1.62 to 1.78)1.48 (1.43 to 1.53)0.61 (0.59 to 0.64)
Dialysis start (ref. = 1995)
19961.08 (1.04 to 1.11)0.97 (0.95 to 1.00)1.12 (1.09 to 1.16)
19971.14 (1.09 to 1.19)0.90 (0.87 to 0.93)1.17 (1.12 to 1.21)