Table 1.

Univariate analyses: inpatient and outpatient utilization per patient-year at riska

VariableFirst 3 MonthsAfter 3 MonthsOverall
Hospital DaysHospitalizationsOutpatient VisitsHospital DaysHospitalizationsOutpatient VisitsHospital DaysHospitalizationsOutpatient Visits
aResults are given as number of days in the hospital, number of hospitalizations, and number of outpatient visits per patient-year at risk. ESRD, end-stage renal disease; HMO, health maintenance organization; EPO, erythropoietin.
bP <0.05.
cP <0.01.
dP <0.001.
Overall28.34.320.512.91.916.114.92.216.6
Age (yr)
18 to 443.23.229.0b6.21.814.4c7.01.916.8
45 to 6425.63.921.114.92.019.916.22.219.6
65 to 7536.04.516.517.52.113.920.12.415.7
>7539.06.115.99.61.69.814.12.311.0
Gender
female31.94.419.214.52.114.816.62.415.3
male24.04.222.11.01.517.912.41.918.6
Race
Caucasian34.64.922.016.71.818.119.6b2.318.8
non-Caucasian21.33.718.910.22.015.611.42.215.8
Cause of ESRD
diabetes mellitus38.95.323.718.8b2.6b21.4c21.8b3.0b21.7c
non-diabetes mellitus22.73.818.910.51.613.912.01.914.5
Insurance
non-HMO33.8c4.9b21.414.02.015.616.52.416.3
HMO6.72.117.47.31.218.17.31.418.0
First vascular access
permanent22.7b4.417.4b12.12.015.213.72.415.5
temporary41.95.224.514.61.815.516.42.116.4
Years of dialysis
10/92 to 9/9437.45.120.226.0d2.316.529.2d3.117.5
10/94 to 9/9620.13.222.89.31.616.410.41.817.0
10/96 to 12/9725.04.517.611.62.015.512.82.215.7
Modality of dialysis
peritoneal dialysis15.52.522.614.22.518.312.32.516.0
hemodialysis30.74.720.112.61.715.315.82.118.7
Timing of referral
early24.44.221.111.91.916.113.62.216.8
late42.44.818.216.22.015.919.62.416.2
Serum albumin (g/dl)
<3.536.0b4.820.516.5b2.4b16.719.2b2.7b17.2
3.5 and high17.63.920.78.71.314.99.81.615.6
Hematocrit (%)
>2828.74.919.513.72.017.015.72.417.3
<2828.43.522.211.51.814.913.62.015.7
GFR at initiation of dialysis
>5 ml/min per 1.73 m231.44.821.614.02.016.116.42.316.9
<5 ml/min per 1.73 m221.03.217.610.61.615.411.91.815.6
EPO use
yes22.63.616.2b14.51.815.415.72.015.5
no31.74.722.912.32.016.414.72.317.2
Ischemic heart disease
no18.4d3.719.69.1d1.5d15.910.2d1.8d16.5
yes46.85.521.323.22.916.827.13.317.3
Congestive heart failure
no23.14.321.19.61.615.111.3b1.915.8
yes34.24.320.316.62.317.318.92.517.7
Peripheral vascular disease
no23.13.820.29.9c1.7b15.711.6d1.9b16.2
yes43.25.722.322.92.117.625.93.118.3
Hepatic disease
no29.44.320.712.61.7b15.814.72.1b16.4
yes22.04.720.815.63.118.516.73.418.8