Table 1.

Clinical presentation, biopsy findings, and follow-up in patients who received lithium therapya

VariablePatient
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aW, white; AA, African-American; H, Hispanic; RI, renal insufficiency; Pr, proteinuria; Y, yes; N, no; Cr, creatinine; CCr, creatinine clearance; U, unknown; Salb, serum albumin; Schol, serum cholesterol; NL, normal; NDI, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; d/c, discontinue; HD, hemodialysis; CTIN, chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy; c/w, consistent with; FSGS, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis; AIN, acute interstitial nephritis; ThinBM, thin basement membrane disease; TA/IF, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis; Mod, moderate; Sev, severe; DIL, dilated (tubular profiles); Neg, negative; EM, electron microscopy; FPF, foot process fusion.
bQuotation marks around values for dipstick proteinuria indicate that 24-h protein quantification was not performed.
cPathologic scoring is graded as mild (involving on average 0 to 25% of cortex or vessel walls), moderate (26 to 50%), or severe (>50%).
Age513757562634403551443655275055453340323836414456
RaceWWWWAAWWWWWWWWWWHWWWWWAAWW
GenderMFFMMFFFFFFMFMMMFMMFMMFM
PresentationRI/PrRI/PrRIRI/PrRI/PrRI/PrRIRIRIRIRIRIRIRI/PrRI/PrRIRIRI/PrRI/PrRIRIRIRI/PrRI
Diabetes mellitusYNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
HypertensionYYNYYNNNNNNNYYNNNYNNYNNN
Cr (mg/dl)2.32.34.23.93.41.922.12.21.33.13.333.8822.43.81.41.71.93.71.82
CCr (ml/min)48551625U3428332068U27UUUUU327835UUUU
24-h protein (g)b6.710.50.35161.54.80.0480.9120.540.02“1+”0.40.723“0”0.182.74.5“0”0.30.6542.5“0”
Salb (g/dl)2.83.2U43.73.6U3.94.2U4UUUNL4.44.6NL3.23.84.6UNLU
Schol (mg/dl)355412U274207322U246175U223UUUU352198216232167260UUU
EdemaYNNNNNUNUNNNUUNNNNNNNUNU
Bipolar disorderYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Years on lithium15141220“Many”141151091521020182091320812102025
Apparent NDIYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYUNYNNYYY
Follow-up
d/c lithiumYYYYYYYYYYYYYNYYUYYUYUYU
length follow-up6 yr5 mo13 mo14 mo14 mo3 mo3 mo1 yr3 yr8 mo22 mo1 yr7 yr7 moHDUU5 yr2 yrU2.5 yrU11 yrU
Cr2.22.25/HD6.4/H6.1/HD1.41.91.32.40.84.83.76/HDHDHDUUHD1.7U1.9U7.6/HDU
Light microscopy
CTIN c/w Li+ toxicityYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
FSGS lesionsYYNYYYNNNNNNNYYYNYYNYNNY
other diagnosisNNAINNNNNNUThinBMNNN?FSGSNNNNNNNNNN
no. of glomeruli2226522253620106134163886871347181220531013>100
no. of segmentally sclerotic glomeruli24032200000001371022040020%
no. of globally sclerotic glomeruli917313531694311027586583113914209620%
TA/IFcModSevSevSevSevSevModSevSevModSevModModSevSevSevSevModSevModSevModMildMod
tubular cystsYYNYDILDILYYDILYYYDILYDILDILYYYYYDILDILY
vascular diseasecModModMildModMildModMildModUMildMildModModModModMildMildModMildMildModMildNLMod
ImmunofluorescenceNegNegNegNegNegNegNegNegNegNegNegNegNegNegNegNegNegNegNegNegNegNegNegNeg
EM, depositsUNUUNUUUNNUNNNNNNUUNNNNN
EM, FPF%U90UU60UUU1010U800U603060UU152003010