Table 3.

Causes of reddish-brown discoloration of the urine

  • Myoglobinuria

    • rhabdomyolysis

      • traumatic

      • nontraumatic

  • Hemoglobinuria

    • hemolysis

      • mechanical damage

      • immunologic damage

      • structural fragility of erythrocytes

      • microangiopathy

  • Hematuria

    • renal causes

    • postrenal causes

  • External factors

    • red beets

    • drugs

      • vitamin B12

      • rifampicin

      • phenolphthalein

      • phenytoin

    • metabolites

      • bilirubin

      • porphyrin