Table 1.

Patient characteristics at baseline and during follow-up according to nephropathy stagea

CharacteristicsAllBaseline Diabetic Nephropathy StageP Value
AbsentIncipientEstablishedAdvanced
aData are means ± SD or median (range). BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, glycohemoglobin; SBP/DBP, systolic/diastolic blood pressure; UAE, urinary albumin excretion; ACE I/D: angiotensin I converting enzyme insertion/deletion. Retinopathy stage: 1, absent; 2, background; 3, preproliferative; 4, proliferative.
bχ2 test.
cAnalysis of variance.
dKruskal-Wallis test.
eLog-transformed data for calculations.
Baseline
n (%)310 (100)251 (81)35 (11)18 (6)6 (2)
age (yr)33.9 ± 13.532.5 ± 13.036.7 ± 13.642.9 ± 13.849.2 ± 13.40.0001c
gender (male/female)179/131144/10718/1712/65/10.4262b
diabetes mellitus duration (yr)15.1 ± 11.113.6 ± 10.918.6 ± 9.426.1 ± 8.626.5 ± 5.7<0.0001c,e
BMI (kg/m2)22.7 ± 3.122.5 ± 3.123.5 ± 2.723.0 ± 2.424.3 ± 3.10.1368c
retinopathy stage (1/2/3/4; n)187/48/41/34172/41/25/1315/6/5/90/1/9/80/0/2/4<0.0001b
HbA1c (%)9.4 ± 2.39.4 ± 2.49.3 ± 2.29.7 ± 2.19.1 ± 1.00.9315c,e
SBP (mmHg)127 ± 16124 ± 13133 ± 15156 ± 19153 ± 16<0.0001c
DBP (mmHg)73 ± 1171 ± 972 ± 1090 ± 1189 ± 6<0.0001c
plasma creatinine (μmol/L)80 (42-257)79 (42-130)73 (46-115)101.5 (71-149)189 (175-257)<0.0001d
UAE (mg/L)7 (2-3300)6 (2-19)58 (20-193)448 (200-3300)480 (13-2100)<0.0001d
Follow-up
duration (yr)5.7 ± 2.25.7 ± 2.15.1 ± 2.56.3 ± 2.36.5 ± 1.60.1849c
mean SBP (mmHg)130 ± 13128 ± 11134 ± 12147 ± 12158 ± 13<0.0001c
mean DBP (mmHg)74 ± 872 ± 775 ± 781 ± 687 ± 5<0.0001c
mean HbA1c (%)8.6 ± 1.38.6 ± 1.28.8 ± 1.58.6 ± 1.18.2 ± 1.20.6665c,e
ACE I/D genotype
II/ID/DD (n)54/150/10646/116/894/20/113/12/31/2/3
II/ID/DD (%)17/48/3518/46/3611/57/3217/66/1717/33/500.4799b