Table 2.

Characteristics of patients with progression in nephropathy and those withouta

CharacteristicsProgression (n = 52)No Progression (n = 258)P Value
BMI: Body Mass Index; Retinopathy stage: 1 (absent) / 2 (background) / 3 (preproliferative) / 4 (proliferative); Nephropathy stage: 1 (absent) / 2 (incipient) / 3 (established) / 4 (advanced); SBP/DBP: Systolic/Diastolic Blood Pressure; UAE: Urinary Albumin Excretion; ACE I/D genotype: Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion. Progression was defined as the shift to a higher stage of diabetic nephropathy.
aData are means ± SD or median (range).
bχ2 test.
cUnpaired t test.
dMann-Whitney U test.
eLog-transformed data for calculations.
Baseline data
age at inclusion in the study (yr)33.8 ± 13.333.9 ± 13.60.9376c
gender (male/female)36/16143/1150.0660b
diabetes mellitus duration (yr)15 ± 1116 ± 100.4937c
BMI (kg/m2)22.7 ± 3.722.7 ± 2.90.8516c
retinopathy stage (1/2/3/4); n (%)26 (50)/11 (21)/6 (12)/9 (17)161 (62)/37 (14)/35 (13)/25 (10)0.1170b
nephropathy stage (1/2/3/4); n (%)39 (74)/4 (8)/6 (12)/3 (6)212 (82)/31 (12)/12 (5)/3 (1)0.0259b
HbAlce (%)9.8 ± 2.79.3 ± 2.30.2270c,e
SBP (mmHg)134 ± 19126 ± 150.0005c
DBP (mmHg)76 ± 1372 ± 100.0430c
plasma creatinine (μmol/L)83 (52-250)77 (42-257)0.0136d
UAE (mg/L)12 (2-1200)7 (2-3300)0.0047d
Follow-up data
duration (yr)6.0 ± 2.15.7 ± 2.20.2558c
mean SBP (mmHg)136 ± 14129 ± 120.0002c
mean DBP (mmHg)78 ± 773 ± 7<0.0001c
mean HbAlc (%)8.8 ± 1.58.5 ± 1.20.1009c,e
ACE I/D genotype
II/ID/DD (n)3/33/1651/117/90
II/ID/DD (%)6/63/3120/45/350.0182b