Table 1.

Viability of mesangial cells treated with 5 μM t-RA (%)a

t-RA Exposure Time (h)
0624
at-RA, all-trans-retinoic acid. Serum-deprived, confluent mesangial cells were treated with t-RA (5 μM) for 6 h and 24 h, and incidence of apoptosis and necrosis was examined by Hoechst staining and trypan blue exclusion, respectively. Both assays were performed in quadruplicate. Data are means ± SEM.
Hoechst staining98.0 ± 0.498.0 ± 0.498.9 ± 0.4
Trypan blue exclusion97.9 ± 0.497.6 ± 0.397.9 ± 0.7