Table 1. Hypertrophic factors for HMCa

Hypertrophic FactorsRegulated ProteinReferences
a HMC, human mesangial cells; TGF-β, transforming growth factor–β; CTFG, connective tissue growth factor.
High glucosep21 ↑9
p27 ↑11
TGF-βp15 ↑6,7
p16 ↑8
p21 ↑10,13
p27 ↑12,13
pRb not phosphorylated15
CTGFCyc D1 ↑
p15 ↑
p21 ↑
p27 ↑
pRb not phosphorylated