Table 1. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of nonsmoking and smoking diabetic patientsa

NonsmokersSmokerstP
a Values are given as prevalence in % for antihypertensive treatment, as median (and range) for AER and index of interstitial fibrosis and as mean ± SD for other all variables. BMI, body mass index; MAP, mean arterial pressure; AER, albumin excretion rate, Vv (mes/glom), mesangial fractional volume; GBM, glomerular basement membrane; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blockers.
b Alone or in association with calcium antagonists, diuretics, or α- and β-blockers.
c Alone or in association with diuretics.
d t test performed after logarithmic transformation.
No. of patients4848
Gender (M/F)28/2042/6
Age (yr)58.8 ± 7.157.8 ± 7.10.690.49
BMI (kg/m2)26.7 ± 8.227.7 ± 5.90.690.49
Diabetes duration (yr)11.6 ± 7.09.4 ± 7.01.540.13
GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)87.7 ± 22.6101.0 ± 22.12.920.004
S-creatinine (μmol/L)88.4 ± 17.779.6 ± 17.72.450.016
Total Cholesterol (mmol/L)6.2 ± 1.35.7 ± 1.21.780.078
Triglycerides (mmol/L)2.5 ± 1.22.2 ± 1.11.260.21
Uricemia (mmol/L)279.6 ± 77.3291.5 ± 77.30.750.45
Fasting glycemia (mmol/L)10.5 ± 3.410.6 ± 3.80.130.90
HbAlc (%)7.6 ± 1.58.6 ± 1.63.160.002
MAP (mmHg)108.5 ± 8.6106.8 ± 11.10.840.40
AER (μg/min)40.0 (22 to 1528)75.8 (30 to 2107)2.25d0.026
Vv (mes/glom)0.27 ± 0.060.26 ± 0.060.820.42
GBM width (nm)398.0 ± 92.5461.0 ± 104.43.130.002
Index of interstitial fibrosis0.50 (0 to 3.5)0.40 (0 to 2.8)0.13d0.90
Treatment for hypertension86.4%86.7%
    ACEI or ARBb61.4%64.4%
    Calcium antagonistsc25.0%22.3%