Table 2. Results by multi-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA)a

Dependent VariableFactorsCovariatesFP
a Performed to determine whether the parameters that were different between smokers and nonsmokers (HbAlc, AER, GBM width, and GFR) were influenced primarily by smoking besides by confounding effects of other clinical and demographic variables. x, interaction between factors.
HbAlcSmoking habit9.790.003
Fasting glycemia >7.8 mmol/L14.12<0.001
Smoking x glycemia >7.8 mmol/L0.300.58
Gender5.470.022
Age1.250.27
BMI0.500.48
Uricemia2.930.09
Total cholesterol0.030.86
Triglycerides3.870.053
Diabetes duration0.050.82
Insulin therapy6.220.015
Oral hypoglycemic agents0.240.63
AERSmoking habit4.640.035
Gender0.180.67
Age0.050.83
MAP0.140.71
Diabetes duration8.390.005
ACEI or ARB therapy0.130.72
Index of interstitial fibrosis4.950.029
GBM widthHeavy smoking4.890.011
Gender1.100.30
Age2.380.13
HbAlc6.950.010
AER6.690.012
Diabetes duration19.92<0.001
ACEI or ARB therapy0.110.74
Vv (mes/glom)12.610.001
Index of interstitial fibrosis2.630.10
GFRCurrent smoking3.680.031
Gender0.740.39
Age19.43<0.001
MAP2.840.097
HbAlc1.700.20
Diabetes duration3.650.061
AER2.220.14
ACEI or ARB therapy0.160.70
Vv (mes/glom)14.61<0.001
GBM width6.600.013
Index of interstitial fibrosis2.650.11