Table 1.

Epidemiologic evidence for the adverse renal effects of smoking

• Dose-dependent increase of urinary albumin excretion rate/proteinuria in cigarette smokers of the general population.
• Dose-dependent increase of the risk of end-stage renal failure (ESRF) in male cigarette smokers of the general population.
• Independent predictor of (micro)albuminuria in patients with primary hypertension.
• Most powerful predictor of renal functional decline in patients with primary hypertension.
• Increased risk for progression of renal failure in patients with primary renal disease.
• In type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: independent risk factor for the onset of microalbuminuria, for progression of microalbuminuria to manifest proteinuria, and for acceleration of the rate of progression of diabetic nephropathy to ESRF.
• Increased risk for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis/ischemic nephropathy.
• Increased risk for deterioration of renal allograft function.