Table 4.

Multivariate OR for the presence of proteinuriaa

Clinical FeatureMultivariate OR95% CIP Value
a CI, confidence interval; ref, reference value.
b In the subgroup with available family history data.
Gender (F/M)1.00.9 to 1.10.858
Race (Chinese = ref)
    Indian0.90.7 to 1.10.190
    other0.80.6 to 1.10.274
    Malay1.31.2 to 1.5<0.0001
Age (≤30 yr = ref)
    31 to 40 yr1.10.9 to 1.20.457
    41 to 50 yr1.21.0 to 1.40.010
    51 to 60 yr1.31.1 to 1.60.002
    ≥61 yr2.72.2 to 3.3<0.0001
Prior diabetes mellitus (yes versus no)2.01.6 to 2.4<0.0001
Prior hypertension (yes versus no)1.81.6 to 2.0<0.0001
Prior renal disease (yes versus no)3.52.9 to 4.3<0.0001
BMI
    ≤18.00 kg/m21.31.0 to 1.70.031
    18.01 to 22.99 kg/m2refrefref
    23.00 to 24.99 kg/m21.00.9 to 1.20.628
    25.00 to 27.49 kg/m21.31.2 to 1.6<0.0001
    27.50 to 29.99 kg/m21.61.3 to 1.9<0.0001
    ≥30.00 kg/m22.52.2 to 3.0<0.0001
SBP (≤109 mmHg = ref)
    110 to 129 mmHg1.21.0 to 1.40.046
    130 to 139 mmHg1.41.2 to 1.80.001
    140 to 159 mmHg1.71.4 to 2.2<0.0001
    160 to 179 mmHg2.31.8 to 3.1<0.0001
    180 to 199 mmHg3.32.3 to 4.8<0.0001
    ≥200 mmHg3.82.2 to 6.5<0.0001
DBP (≤79 mmHg = ref)
    80 to 89 mmHg1.11.0 to 1.30.148
    90 to 99 mmHg1.51.2 to 1.8<0.0001
    100 to 109 mmHg1.71.3 to 2.1<0.0001
    110 to 119 mmHg1.81.2 to 2.80.006
    ≥120 mmHg4.52.4 to 8.5<0.0001
Hematuria (yes versus no)2.92.6 to 3.3<0.0001
Glycosuria (yes versus no)1.51.3 to 1.8<0.0001
Cluster of family historiesb (versus none)
    FDM + FHTN + FKD1.30.9 to 1.80.225
    FDM + FHTN0.90.8 to 1.10.539
    FDM + FKD1.81.2 to 2.70.009
    FHTN + FKD1.91.4 to 2.8<0.0001
    FDM only1.00.9 to 1.20.810
    FHTN only1.10.9 to 1.20.365
    FKD only2.01.5 to 2.6<0.0001