Table 2.

Causes of proximal RTA (type 2)

I. Primary isolated proximal RTA
     1. hereditary (persistent)
      a. autosomal dominant
      b. autosomal recessive associated with mental retardation and ocular abnormalities
     2. sporadic (transient in infancy)
II. Secondary proximal RTA
     1. in the context of Fanconi syndrome (cystinosis, galactosemia, fructose intolerance, tyrosinemia, Wilson disease, Lowe syndrome, metachromatic leukodystrophy, multiple myeloma, light chain disease)
     2. drugs and toxins (acetazolamide, outdated tetracycline, aminoglycoside antibiotics, valproate, 6-mercaptopurine, streptozotocin, iphosphamide, lead, cadmium, mercury)
     3. associated to other clinical entities (vitamin D deficiency, hyperparathyroidism, chronic hypocapnia, Leigh syndrome, cyanotic congenital heart disease, medullary cystic disease, Alport syndrome, corticoresistant nephrotic syndrome, renal transplantation, amyloidosis, recurrent nephrolithiasis)