Table 3.

Causes of distal RTA (type 1)

I. Primary distal RTA
     1. persistent
      a. “classic” form (sporadic or inherited as autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive)
      b. with neurosensorial deafness (autosomal recessive)
      c. with bicarbonate wasting (in infants and young children)
      d. incomplete distal RTA
     2. transient (in infancy?)
II. Secondary distal RTA
     1. in the context of genetic diseases (osteopetrosis, sickle-cell disease, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hereditary ovalocytosis, Wilson disease, hereditary fructose intolerance with nephrocalcinosis, primary hyperoxaluria type 1, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 deficiency, X-linked hypophosphatemia, cogenital adrenal hyperplasia)
     2. calcium disorders (primary hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemic hyperthyroidism, vitamin D intoxication, idiopathic hypercalciuria with nephrocalcinosis, familial hypomagenesemia-hypercalciuria with nephrocalcinosis)
     3. dysproteinemic syndromes (hypergammaglobulinemia, cryoglobulinemia, amyloidosis)
     4. autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, chronic active hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, thyroiditis, fibrosing alveolitis, rheumatoid arthritis)
     5. renal diseases (renal transplant rejection, medullary sponge kidney, obstructive and reflux nephropathy, Balkan nephropathy)
     6. hyponatriuric states (nephrotic syndrome, hepatic cirrhosis)
     7. drugs and toxins (amphotericin B, lithium, analgesic abuse, toluene, amiloride, trimethoprim, pentamidine, vanadium)