Table 1.

Inclusion and exclusion criteria for the trial

Inclusion criteria
    1. hemodialysis dependency or planned hemodialysis in near end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients.
    2. newly placed polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft.
Exclusion criteria
    1. recent major hemorrhage (within the previous 6 mo); defined as bleeding requiring transfusion, bleeding in a critical site (retroperitoneal or intracranial), bleeding associated with hypovolemia or requiring admission to hospital, or bleeding resulting in ≥20 g/L (2 g/dl) drop in the hemoglobin.
    2. allergy to warfarin.
    3. persistent thrombocytopenia (platelet count <50 × 109/L).
    4. inability to take oral medications.
    5. presently taking warfarin for another indication.
    6. expectation of recovery of renal function or life expectancy less than 2 mo.
    7. lack of informed consent or inability to give informed consent.