Table 1. Characteristics of patients with and without valvular calcificationa

Total (n = 192)Valvular Calcification (n = 62)No Valvular Calcification (n = 130)Pc
a Plus-minus values are means ± SD.
b Expressed as median (interquartile range).
c Valvular calcification versus no valvular calcification.
Demographic and clinical parameters
    age (yr)55 ± 1260 ± 1053 ± 13<0.001
    male gender (n [%])98 (51)31 (50.0)67 (51.5)0.842
    body mass index (kg/m2)23 ± 323.6 ± 3.222.9 ± 3.50.250
    smoking habit (n [%])
        nonsmoker116 (60.4)30 (48.4)86 (66.1)0.062
        ex-smoker47 (24.5)20 (32.2)27 (20.8)
        current smoker29 (15)12 (19.4)17 (13.1)
    duration of dialysis (mo)39 ± 3142 ± 3237 ± 300.281
    diabetes mellitus (n [%])66 (34.4)29 (46.8)37 (28.5)0.012
    prevalence of atherosclerotic vascular disease (n [%])43 (22.4)19 (30.6)24 (18.5)0.058
    systolic BP (mmHg)147 ± 16148 ± 16147 ± 160.646
    diastolic BP (mmHg)82 ± 1080 ± 983 ± 100.061
Biochemical parameters
    serum calcium (mmol/L)2.57 ± 0.192.63 ± 0.182.54 ± 0.180.002
    serum phosphate (mmol/L)1.68 ± 0.451.79 ± 0.521.63 ± 0.410.016
    calcium × phosphate product4.32 ± 1.254.71 ± 1.434.13 ± 1.120.002
    parathyroid hormone (pmol/L)59 ± 5274 ± 6151 ± 460.006
    fasting lipid
        total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.55 ± 1.225.39 ± 1.245.62 ± 1.210.221
        LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)3.44 ± 0.973.31 ± 0.933.50 ± 0.990.206
        HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.19 ± 0.421.15 ± 0.381.21 ± 0.440.369
        Triglyceride (mmol/L)2.21 ± 1.772.27 ± 1.682.18 ± 1.820.738
    serum albumin (g/L)28.3 ± 4.026.8 ± 3.729.0 ± 4.0<0.001
    high sensitive C-reactive protein (mg/Lb)2.7 (0.9, 7.8)5.5 (1.5, 16.1)1.8 (0.8, 5.1)<0.001
    Fibrinogen (g/L)5.91 ± 1.536.31 ± 1.765.72 ± 1.370.012