Table 4. Predictors of all-cause Mortality in new ESRD patients in the United States (n = 107,922)

Patient CharacteristicsUnadjusted RRa95% CIAdjusted RRa95% CI
a Unadjusted and adjusted relative risks (RR) for all covariates in the study population.
b At first dialysis per MDRD formula (18).
c Includes history of coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass surgery, angioplasty, or abnormal angiography.
d Includes a history of peripheral vascular disease amputation, intermittent claudication, or absent foot pulses.
e RR for PD versus HD were estimated at each successive 6-mo interval. A separate model found significant interactions between modality × coronary artery disease (CAD) (P < 0.0001) and modality × diabetes (P < 0.0001) when included in the adjusted model.
f P < 0.05,
g P < 0.01, and
h P < 0.001 compared with a RR of 1.00.
Demographics
    age of onset of ESRD (yr)1.041.035 to 1.037h1.031.030 to 1.032h
    White race (non-White)1.531.49 to 1.57h1.251.22 to 1.29h
    male gender (female)1.020.99 to 1.040.990.97 to 1.02
    diabetic ESRD (all other causes)1.101.08 to 1.13h1.081.05 to 1.11h
Laboratory values
    serum albumin (per 1 g/dl)0.750.73 to 0.76h0.720.71 to 0.73h
    hematocrit (per 1%)1.021.015 to 1.020h1.011.010 to 1.014h
    GFR (MDRD) (per ml/min)b1.081.07 to 1.08h1.051.046 to 1.055h
Comorbidity (yes or suspected versus no)
    coronary artery diseasec1.681.64 to 1.73h1.111.08 to 1.14h
    cardiac arrest/dysrhythmia1.861.78 to 1.93h1.181.14 to 1.23h
    congestive heart failure1.721.68 to 1.76h1.261.23 to 1.29h
    cerebrovascular disease1.581.53 to 1.64h1.181.13 to 1.22h
    peripheral vascular diseased1.661.61 to 1.71h1.181.14 to 1.22h
    chronic obstructive lung disease1.821.75 to 1.90h1.241.19 to 1.29h
    tobacco use1.010.96 to 1.071.030.98 to 1.09
    AIDS2.622.33 to 2.95h4.914.37 to 5.52h
    neoplasm1.811.73 to 1.90h1.421.36 to 1.49h
    BMI (per kg/m2)0.9630.960 to 0.965h0.980.974 to 0.978h
Pre-ESRD care
    erythropoietin use (yes versus no)0.900.87 to 0.93h0.860.84 to 0.89h
Dialysis modality PD (versus HD)e
PD versus HD (reference)
    0 to 6 mo0.690.65 to 0.73h0.920.87 to 0.98h
    6 to 12 mo0.910.86 to 0.97g1.151.08 to 1.23h
    12 to 18 mo1.060.99 to 1.131.281.19 to 1.38h
    18 to 24 mo1.111.01 to 1.21f1.371.25 to 1.51h
    0 to 24 mo0.830.80 to 0.87h1.111.07 to 1.16h