Table 1. Characteristics of the 7198 study participants by diabetic status

VariablesaDiabetes (n = 745)No Diabetes (n = 6453)Pb
a Mean or percentage (SE).
b Age, race-ethnicity, and gender adjusted.
c Insulin resistance estimated by Homeostasis Model Assessment.
d ≥1.6 mg/dl for males; ≥1.3 mg/dl for females.
e Estimated GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73m2.
Age, yr60.3 (0.8)43.5 (0.5)<0.001
Male, %52.7 (3.1)47.1 (0.9)0.007
Non-Hispanic Black, %14.5 (1.6)10.1 (0.6)<0.001
Mexican-American, %6.6 (0.7)5.1 (0.5)<0.001
≥ High School education, %60.3 (3.0)77.4 (1.2)<0.001
Currently smoking, %20.3 (2.4)28.1 (1.0)0.02
Alcohol consumption, %32.4 (3.4)56.1 (1.6)0.001
Physically inactive, %28.8 (2.2)21.0 (1.1)0.43
Serum cholesterol, mg/dl221.6 (2.7)203.0 (1.0)0.14
Hypercholesterolemia, %68.8 (2.4)50.2 (1.3)0.38
Systolic BP, mmHg135.1 (1.0)120.7 (0.4)0.001
Hypertension, %56.9 (2.8)20.8 (0.9)<0.001
Body mass index, kg/m230.7 (0.3)26.3 (0.1)<0.001
Overweight, %83.4 (1.9)53.0 (1.2)<0.001
NSAID use in previous month, %70.3 (2.8)78.1 (0.8)0.28
Plasma glucose, mg/dl186.7 (3.5)95.1 (0.2)<0.001
Serum insulin, μU/ml25.7 (1.2)10.0 (0.2)<0.001
HOMA-insulin resistancec12.2 (0.8)2.4 (0.1)<0.001
Serum C-peptide, ρmol/ml1.19 (0.03)0.68 (0.01)<0.001
HbA1c, %7.66 (0.10)5.20 (0.02)<0.001
Serum creatinine, mg/dl1.14 (0.03)1.06 (0.005)0.29
Elevated creatinine,d %7.1 (0.9)3.1 (0.4)0.02
Estimated GFR, ml/min/1.73m2101.1 (1.3)112.8 (0.9)0.08
Chronic kidney disease,e %9.4 (1.3)1.9 (0.2)<0.001