Table 2. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease (GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) according to quartiles of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, HbA1c, and HOMA-insulin resistance among 6453 persons without diabetes

No. of Cases / Participants% (SE)P
Plasma glucose, mg/dl
    <88.920 / 16150.7 (0.2)
    88.9 to 95.138 / 16131.2 (0.3)
    95.2 to 101.954 / 16332.2 (0.5)<0.001
    ≥102.073/15923.9 (0.6)
Serum insulin, μU/ml
    <6.6130 / 16040.8 (0.2)
    6.62 to 9.0849 / 16011.8 (0.4)
    9.09 to 12.8849 / 15992.2 (0.5)<0.001
    ≥12.8956 / 15973.6 (0.7)
Serum C-peptide, ρmol/ml
    <0.40311 / 16090.3 (0.1)
    0.404 to 0.63618 / 16020.6 (0.2)
    0.637 to 0.93746 / 16061.6 (0.3)<0.001
    ≥0.938108 / 16015.8 (0.8)
HbA1c, %
    <5.021 / 19130.5 (0.1)
    5.1 to 5.330 / 16141.2 (0.3)
    5.4 to 5.643 / 14342.2 (0.4)<0.001
    ≥5.791 / 14706.3 (0.9)
HOMA-insulin resistance
    <1.49331 / 16000.9 (0.2)
    1.493 to 2.14744 / 15991.4 (0.3)
    2.148 to 3.15347 / 15992.0 (0.4)<0.001
    ≥3.15462 / 15994.1 (0.8)