Table 3. Age, gender, and race/ethnicity- or multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of chronic kidney disease according to quartiles of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, HbA1c, and HOMA-insulin resistance among 6453 persons without diabetesa

Age, Gender, Race/Ethnicity AdjustedMultivariate-Adjusted
Odds Ratio (95% CI)P-TrendOdds Ratio (95% CI)P-Trend
a Adjusted for age, race-ethnicity, gender, systolic BP, body mass index, total cholesterol, education, physical activity, cigarette smoking, NSAID usage in the past month, and alcohol consumption.
Plasma glucose, mg/dl
    <88.91.001.00
    88.9 to 95.11.19 (0.55 to 2.58)1.04 (0.46 to 2.33)
0.230.56
    95.2 to 101.91.36 (0.55 to 3.37)1.11 (0.45 to 2.70)
    ≥102.01.55 (0.71 to 3.42)1.20 (0.57 to 2.53)
Serum insulin, μU/ml
    <6.611.001.00
    6.62 to 9.081.91 (1.05 to 3.50)1.77 (0.93 to 3.37)
<0.0010.001
    9.09 to 12.882.48 (1.32 to 4.63)2.30 (1.20 to 4.40)
    ≥12.894.41 (2.42 to 8.05)4.03 (1.81 to 8.95)
Serum C-peptide, ρmol/ml
    <0.4031.001.00
    0.404 to 0.6361.30 (0.48 to 3.58)1.23 (0.43 to 3.55)
<0.001<0.001
    0.637 to 0.9373.09 (1.29 to 7.44)3.21 (1.23 to 8.52)
    ≥0.9389.76 (4.22 to 23.0)11.4 (4.07 to 32.1)
HbA1c, %
    <5.01.001.00
    5.1 to 5.31.47 (0.66 to 3.30)1.24 (0.56 to 2.78)
0.0010.002
    5.4 to 5.61.67 (0.90 to 3.11)1.46 (0.81 to 2.62)
    ≥5.73.17 (1.49 to 6.74)2.67 (1.31 to 5.46)
HOMA-insulin resistance
    <1.4931.001.00
    1.493 to 2.1471.08 (0.56 to 2.07)0.93 (0.49 to 1.78)
<0.0010.008
    2.148 to 3.1531.44 (0.71 to 2.91)1.26 (0.62 to 2.59)
    ≥3.1543.15 (1.72 to 5.77)2.65 (1.25 to 5.62)