Table 4. Age, gender, and race/ethnicity- or multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of chronic kidney disease associated with one SD higher level of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, HbA1c, and HOMA-insulin resistance among 6453 persons without diabetes

Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity-AdjustedMultivariate-Adjustmenta
a Adjusted for age, race-ethnicity, gender, systolic BP, body mass index, total cholesterol, education, physical activity, cigarette smoking, NSAID usage in the past month, and alcohol consumption.
Glucose (10.91 mg/dl)1.13 (0.86 to 1.48)1.04 (0.79 to 1.37)
Insulin (7.14 μU/ml)1.39 (1.18 to 1.63)1.35 (1.16 to 1.57)
C-peptide (0.45 ρmol/ml)2.46 (1.98 to 3.05)2.78 (2.25 to 3.42)
HbA1c (0.52%)1.73 (1.34 to 2.24)1.69 (1.28 to 2.23)
HOMA-insulin resistance (1.93)1.35 (1.15 to 1.58)1.30 (1.13 to 1.50)