Table 5. Age, gender, and race/ethnicity or multivariate-adjusted changes of GFR associated with one SD higher level of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, HbA1c, and HOMA-insulin resistance among 6453 persons without diabetes

Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity-AdjustedMultivariate-Adjustmenta
Δ (95% CI)PΔ (95% CI)P
a Adjusted for age, race-ethnicity, gender, systolic BP, body mass index, total cholesterol, education, physical activity, cigarette smoking, NSAID usage in the past month, and alcohol consumption.
Glucose (10.91 mg/dl)−1.23 (−2.32 to −0.15)0.03−0.94 (−2.07 to 0.19)0.10
Insulin (7.14 μU/ml)−1.41 (−2.55 to −0.28)0.02−1.51 (−2.64 to −0.37)0.01
C-peptide (0.45 ρmol/ml)−3.23 (−4.24 to −2.22)<0.001−4.27 (−5.48 to −3.06)<0.001
HbA1c (0.52%)−2.33 (−3.48 to −1.18)<0.001−2.86 (−4.07 to −1.65)<0.001
HOMA-insulin resistance (1.93)−1.57 (−2.63 to −0.52)0.004−1.71 (−2.76 to −0.66)0.002