Table 4. Effect estimates of the late versus early nephrologist referral association

ModelaOdds Ratio95% Confidence IntervalP
a All models controlled for age, gender, race (White, Black, other), socioeconomic status, hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, malignancy, gastrointestinal erosion/ulcer, severe liver disease, obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV+/AIDS, dementia, depression, alcohol or substance abuse, other mental disease.
b Hospital days, primary care visits, surgical visits, medical subspecialist visits, nursing home stay.
Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model1.361.22 to 1.51<0.0001
    additionally including quintiles of propensity score1.311.17 to 1.47<0.0001
    in propensity score matched population (n = 2,078)1.401.23 to 1.59<0.0001
    additionally including covariates of health care utilization in the Cox proportional hazards modelb1.391.22 to 1.58<0.0001
Interval Cox model from onset of RRT to 90 d1.751.48 to 2.08<0.0001
Interval Cox model from 91 to 365 d1.030.84 to 1.250.81