Table 1. Patient characteristics by intention to propose dialysis (group 1) or conservative measures (group 2)a

Group 1 (n = 107) n (%) or mean ± SDGroup 2 (n = 37) n (%) or mean ± SDP
a EPO indicates recombinant erythropoietin; ESRD, end-stage renal disease.
b Data obtained for a subset of the study group (n = 135).
c Excluding hydration problems of ESRD.
d Presumptive diagnosis in most cases, in patients with a history of long-standing hypertension, bilateral small kidneys ± renal artery stenosis, mild or absent proteinuria, blank urinary sediment and no other obvious cause of nephropathy.
Inclusion period
    1989 to 199221 (61.8)13 (38.2)
    1993 to 199638 (79.2)10 (20.8).15
    1997 to 200048 (77.4)14 (22.6)
Demography
    age (yr)83.2 ± 2.984.1 ± 2.9.12
    male gender, %59 (55.1)14 (37.8).07
    ethnic minority, %6 (5.6)5 (13.5).12
    socially isolated, %15 (14.7)16 (43.3).003
Clinical
    late referral (<4 mo)31 (28.9)19 (51.4).014
    EPO use before inclusion24 (22)8 (23.2).9
    Karnofsky scoreb63 ± 2055 ± 18.03
    body mass index (kg/m2)c21.8 ± 3.321.3 ± 3.5
Etiology of ESRD
    vascular diseased63 (58.9)22 (59.5)
    interstitial/obstructive nephropathy21 (19.6)4 (10.8)
    diabetic nephropathy5 (4.7)4 (10.8)
    other chronic glomerulopathy8 (7.5)2 (5.4).27
    multiple myeloma5 (4.7)1 (2.7)
    other systemic disease3 (2.8)1 (2.7)
    polycystic kidney disease1 (.9)3 (8.1)
    nephrectomy1 (.9)0 (0)
Comorbid conditions
    malignancy (actual or past)13 (12.2)5 (13.5).8
    ischemic heart disease45 (42)18 (48.6).48
    cardiac failure43 (40.2)19 (51.4).24
    dysrhythmia26 (24.3)10 (27).74
    peripheral vascular disease23 (21.5)8 (21.6).98
    sequelae of stroke and/or overt13 (12.2)/6 (5.6)8 (21.6)/3 (8.1).3./6
    dementia
    diabetes7 (6.5)8 (21.6).008
Sum of comorbid conditions
    026 (24.3)7 (18.9)
    1 to 259 (55.1)18 (48.7).33
    ≥322 (20.6)12 (32.4)
Laboratory tests
    hemoglobin (g/dl)9.7 ± 1.59.6 ± 1.5.93
    serum potassium (mmol/L)4.5 ± 0.74.4 ± 0.7.74
    serum phosphate (mmol/L)1.9 ± 0.51.6 ± 0.4.013
    serum bicarbonate (mmol/L)22.2 ± 5.222.3 ± 3.1.96