Table 1. Baseline characteristics of patients by clinic practice of the frequency of patient-physician contact

CharacteristicFrequency of Patient-Physician Contact at ClinicaOverallP
High FrequencyIntermediate FrequencyLow Frequency
a High, every treatment/more than weekly; Intermediate, weekly/more than monthly; Low, monthly or less.
b P-values obtained from Pearson χ2 test. Significant P-values are in boldface type.
c Shown are means (± SD). P-values obtained from ANOVA. Significant P-values are in boldface type.
No. (%) of patients105 (14.3%)479 (65.2%)151 (20.5%)735 (100%)
No. (%) of clinics8 (10.7%)53 (70.7%)14 (18.7%)75 (100%)
Patient-level characteristics
    Demographic
        Age at enrollment (n = 735)c57.8 ± 14.560.1 ± 14.658.8 ± 14.859.5 ± 14.60.271
        Gender (n = 735)b
            female53 (50.5%)223 (46.6%)60 (39.7%)336 (45.7%)0.195
            male52 (49.5%)256 (53.4%)91 (60.3%)399 (54.3%)
        race (n = 735)b
            white56 (53.3%)310 (64.7%)97 (64.2%)463 (63.0%)
            black46 (43.8%)139 (29.0%)49 (32.5%)234 (31.8%)0.027
            other3 (2.9%)30 (6.3%)5 (3.3%)38 (5.2%)
        education (n = 708)b
            not a high school graduate37 (36.3%)159 (34.6%)37 (25.2%)233 (32.9%)0.077
            high school graduate65 (63.7%)300 (65.4%)110 (74.8%)475 (67.1%)
        marital status (n = 728)b
            not currently married52 (50.0%)213 (44.9%)73 (48.7%)338 (46.4%)0.533
            currently married52 (50.0%)261 (55.1%)77 (51.3%)390 (53.6%)
        employment status (n = 734)b
            not employed89 (84.8%)445 (92.9%)136 (90.7%)670 (91.3%)0.027
            employed16 (15.2%)34 (7.1%)14 (9.3%)64 (8.7%)
        distance from clinic (n = 702)b
            <30 miles86 (86.9%)426 (92.2%)133 (94.3%)645 (91.9%)0.104
            ≥30 miles13 (13.1%)36 (7.8%)8 (5.7%)57 (8.1%)
    Clinical
        baseline ICED (n = 734)b
            ≤132 (30.5%)151 (31.6%)36 (23.8%)219 (29.8%)
            245 (42.9%)174 (36.4%)63 (42.0%)282 (38.4%)0.287
            328 (26.7%)153 (32.0%)52 (34.4%)233 (31.7%)
        baseline MCS score (n = 618)c44.1 ± 11.046.9 ± 11.946.2 ± 11.146.3 ± 11.70.125
        baseline PCS score (n = 618)c33.6 ± 10.132.3 ± 10.330.9 ± 9.332.2 ± 10.10.167
        body mass index (n = 688)c28.0 ± 7.427.0 ± 7.127.7 ± 6.527.3 ± 7.00.370
        mean Kt/V (n = 574)c1.28 ± 0.271.28 ± 0.311.19 ± 0.271.27 ± 0.300.025
        time from first dialysis to enrollment, days (n = 734)c52.9 ± 26.652.6 ± 33.059.8 ± 30.754.1 ± 31.70.047
    Laboratory
        albumin at 1st dialysis, g/dl (n = 727)c3.47 ± 0.533.51 ± 0.443.48 ± 0.503.50 ± 0.470.732
        mean creatinine, mg/dl (n = 715)c7.5 ± 2.07.1 ± 2.57.5 ± 2.57.2 ± 2.50.072
        mean hematocrit, % (n = 712)c32.7 ± 3.431.8 ± 3.731.5 ± 4.032.0 ± 3.80.043
Clinic-level factors
    number of HD patientsb
        <515 (12.6%)308 (55.9%)54 (28.1%)377 (43.7%)<0.001
        ≥5104 (87.4%)243 (44.1%)138 (71.9%)485 (56.3%)
    number of HD shifts/weekb
        ≤1265 (54.6%)336 (56.9%)149 (77.6%)550 (61.0%)<0.001
        >1254 (45.4%)255 (43.2%)43 (22.4%)352 (39.0%)
    patient:nurse ratioc
        ≤340 (36.7%)334 (56.5%)44 (22.9%)418 (46.9%)<0.001
        >369 (63.3%)257 (43.5%)148 (77.1%)474 (53.1%)
    patient:technician ratiob
        ≤335 (33.7%)301 (64.9%)37 (20.0%)373 (49.5%)<0.001
        >369 (66.4%)163 (35.1%)148 (80.0%)380 (50.5%)
    nurse manager roundsb
        none68 (57.1%)225 (38.1%)90 (46.9%)383 (42.5%)
        weekly35 (29.4%)183 (31.0%)41 (21.4%)259 (28.7%)<0.001
        daily/twice a week16 (13.5%)183 (31.0%)61 (31.8%)260 (28.8%)
    number of years in operationb
        ≤1048 (40.3%)292 (50.2%)98 (51.0%)438 (49.0%)0.122
        >1071 (59.7%)290 (49.8%)94 (49.0%)455 (51.0%)