Table 2. Association over time of clinic practice of the frequency of patient-physician contact with patient outcomesa

OutcomeCrude %Unadjusted ResultAdjustedb Result
a RH, relative hazard; IRR, incidence rate ratio; OR, odds ratio. Significant values are in boldface type.
b Adjustment was for the following variables: mortality, age at enrollment, race, time-varying ICED (baseline, 1-year, and 2-year values, where available), and albumin at first dialysis; hospitalizations, age at enrollment, race, baseline ICED, and albumin at first dialysis; adherence, age at enrollment, race, current smoking, baseline ICED, albumin at first dialysis, and baseline creatinine; quality of life, age at enrollment, gender, race, education, time-varying ICED, albumin at first dialysis, baseline creatinine, and baseline hematocrit; satisfaction, age at enrollment, race, education, time-varying ICED, MCS, and PCS, marital status, employment status, distance from center, and time from first dialysis to enrollment.
c Crude mortality is at mean follow-up (2.5 yr).
d Values for n and percentages are at 1 yr; odds ratios are from longitudinal models incorporating baseline, 1- and 2-yr values.
Mortalityc% DeadRH (95% CI)RH (95% CI)
    high frequency (n = 105)19%1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)
    intermediate frequency (n = 479)27%1.54 (0.88–2.70)1.33 (0.82–2.14)
    low frequency (n = 151)24%1.13 (0.60–2.13)0.87 (0.53–1.44)
HospitalizationRate per 1000 pt-yrsIRR (95% CI)IRR (95% CI)
    high frequency (n = 105)13451.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)
    intermediate frequency (n = 479)14541.07 (0.76–1.51)1.03 (0.75–1.42)
    low frequency (n = 151)11080.83 (0.55–1.25)0.73 (0.50–1.05)
Patient adherence to dialysis treatment% NonadherentOR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
    high frequency (n = 105)6%1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)
    intermediate frequency (n = 479)8%1.45 (0.61–3.43)1.58 (0.78–3.19)
    low frequency (n = 151)14%2.67 (1.04–6.84)2.89 (1.01–8.29)
Quality of life: MCSd% above MeanOR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
    high frequency (n = 67)51%1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)
    intermediate frequency (n = 338)60%1.52 (1.03–2.24)1.46 (0.99–2.15)
    low frequency (n = 125)55%1.36 (0.87–2.14)1.32 (0.84–2.08)
Quality of life: PCSd% above MeanOR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
    high frequency (n = 67)52%1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)
    intermediate frequency (n = 338)51%0.96 (0.65–1.42)1.00 (0.66–1.52)
    low frequency (n = 125)42%0.68 (0.42–1.08)0.69 (0.42–1.12)
Satisfaction: how often nephrologist sees youd% ExcellentOR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
    high frequency (n = 65)25%1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)
    intermediate frequency (n = 309)20%0.59 (0.40–0.89)0.57 (0.37–0.87)
    low frequency (n = 107)18%0.41 (0.24–0.68)0.39 (0.23–0.67)
Satisfaction: overall quality of cared% ExcellentOR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
    high frequency (n = 71)47%1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)
    intermediate frequency (n = 315)40%0.88 (0.58–1.32)0.88 (0.57–1.35)
    low frequency (n = 107)49%1.04 (0.65–1.66)1.07 (0.66–1.74)
Satisfaction: willingness to recommend centerd% Definitely YesOR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
    high frequency (n = 70)61%1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)
    intermediate frequency (n = 315)59%1.11 (0.72–1.71)1.08 (0.70–1.66)
    low frequency (n = 108)68%1.35 (0.81–2.26)1.42 (0.84–2.38)