Table 1. Characteristics of participants by change in estimated GFR (ml/min per year per 1.73 m2)a

VariableDecrease in GFR ≥3 ml/min per year per 1.73 m2Stable GFRIncrease in GFR ≥3 ml/min per year per 1.73 m2P Valueb
a CVD, cardiovascular disease; CRP, C-reactive protein; WBC, white blood cell; IMT, intimal-medial thickness; AAI, ankle-arm index; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; ECG, electrocardiogram.
b The significance of the three groups based on ANOVA F test for continuous variables and χ2 tests for discrete variables, except for pack-years smoking and CRP, which were compared using k-sample test of medians.
c Significantly different (P < 0.05) from the low estimated GFR group, using Bonferroni-adjusted test for significance.
d Significantly different (P < 0.05) from the stable estimated GFR group, using Bonferroni-adjusted test for significance (note: if one group is significantly different from the stable group, then it is implicit that the stable group is significantly different from that group).
e Significantly different (P < 0.05) from the high estimated GFR group, using Bonferroni-adjusted test for significance.
N (%)588 (12.7)3642 (78.8)390 (8.4)
Age (SD)72.8 (5.6)d72.0 (5.0)72.9 (5.5)d0.0001
Race (black, %)174 (29.6)d,e381 (10.5)43 (11.0)c<0.0001
Gender (male, %)196 (33.3)d,e1522 (41.8)202 (51.8)c,d<0.0001
Risk factors
    Baseline creatinine (mean, SD)0.88 (0.30)1.05 (0.29)1.12 (0.28)c,d<0.0001
        diabetes
        none (n [%])374 (63.6)d2702 (74.4)264 (67.7)d<0.0001
        glucose intolerance67 (11.4)478 (13.2)65 (16.7)0.056
        diabetes147 (25.0)d,e452 (12.4)61 (15.6)c<0.0001
    prevalent CVD (n [%])150 (25.5)779 (21.4)112 (28.7)d0.0008
    pack-years (median [5, 95])1.8 (0, 70)e1 (0, 64.5)8 (0, 84)c,d0.015
    LDL (mg/dl)127.6 (35.2)130.7 (35.2)128.1 (35.6)0.08
    HDL (mg/dl)54.1 (15.4)54.7 (15.8)52.4 (14.4)d0.013
    triglycerides (mg/dl)140.8 (75.0)138.3 (7.5)140.5 (71.7)0.67
    weight (lb)162.4 (31.5)160.1 (31.4)160.0 (31.6)0.26
    systolic BP (mmHg)141.2 (22.5)d,e134.7 (21.0)133.9 (20.3)c<0.0001
    diastolic BP (mmHg)70.9 (11.8)70.6 (11.0)70.7 (11.1)0.81
Inflammatory markers
    CRP (mg/L; median [5, 95])2.3 (0.47, 17.7)d,e1.8 (0.39, 10.5)1.9 (0.37, 11.4)c<.00001
    fibrinogen (mg/dl; mean [SD])335.0 (71.8)d,e317.3 (61.4)312.3 (63.9)c<0.0001
    albumin (g/dl; mean [SD])3.93 (0.28)d,e4.01 (0.29)4.05 (0.29)c<0.0001
    hemoglobin (g/dl; mean [SD])13.7 (1.33)d,e14.1 (1.37)14.3 (1.49)c,d<0.0001
    WBC count (1000/mm3; mean [SD])6.6 (3.0)d6.2 (1.9)6.3 (1.6)<0.0001
    factor VII (%; mean [SD])123.1 (28.3)124.2 (29.0)121.4 (31.3)0.16
Subclinical atherosclerosis
    carotid IMT (mm; mean [SD])1.09 (0.22)d1.04 (0.20)1.08 (0.23)d<0.0001
    AAI (mean [SD])1.04 (0.17)d1.09 (0.16)1.05 (0.19)d<0.0001
    Abnormal LVEF (n [%])15 (2.6)85 (2.4)13 (3.4)0.46
    Maximum carotid stenosis (%)0.015
        0 (n [%])123 (21.0)908 (25.0)75 (19.3)
        1–24184 (31.4)1143 (31.5)106 (27.3)
        25–49258 (44.0)1.439 (39.7)190 (49.0)
        50–7419 (3.2)104 (2.9)15 (3.9)
        75–993 (0.5)23 (0.6)1 (0.3)
        1000 (0)10 (0.3)1 (0.3)
    major ECG abnormalities (n [%])177 (30.9)d900 (25.5)115 (30.3)0.006