Table 1. Factors associated with HCV after kidney transplantation, kidney transplant recipients, January 1, 1996, through July 31, 2000, with Medicare as primary payera

N (%) or Mean ± SDMissing (N [%])Patients with Factor Who Had
PTHCVb (Incident HCV Claims after Transplantation)PTDc (Excluding Patients with Prevalent Diabetes; N = 17,572)
a Data are the number (% of total) or mean ± 1 SD. Dates for kidney transplant recipients were January 1, 1996, through July 31, 2000, censored at 3 y of follow-up. Associations with PTD are not shown for factors other than HCV sero-pairing. For PTD, these associations have already been shown in this population and were not different in this analysis. HCV, hepatitis C virus; PTHCV, posttransplantation HCV; PTD, posttransplantation diabetes; PD, peritoneal dialysis; HD, hemodialysis; NS, nonsignificant.
b The percentages in the column represent the percentage of patients with each donor/recipient HCV serology combination who developed acute hepatitis C after transplantation.
c Analysis limited to patients without a history of diabetes before transplantation (N = 17,572). The percentages in the column represent the percentage of patients with each donor/recipient HCV serology combination who developed new-onset diabetes after transplantation.
d P < 0.05 versus patients without HCV by χ2. In the case of donor/recipient HCV status, D−/R− is the reference group.
e P < 0.05 versus patients without HCV by t test.
N28,924143 (0.5)4171 (26.2)
Donor/recipient HCV pairs2695 (9.3)
    D+/R−187 (0.7)17 (9.1)d49 (43.8)d
    D+/R+365 (1.4)23 (6.3)d104 (46.6)d
    D−/R+1477 (5.6)35 (2.4)d293 (32.3)d
    D−/R−24,200 (92.3)54 (0.2)(Ref)3725 (25.4)(Ref)
Demographic factors
    male recipient (versus female)17,739 (59.9)0108 (0.6)d
HCVb (n [%])
    black recipient (versus all other races)8031 (27.1)062 (0.8)d
    mean age (y, risk per older year)45.4 ± 14.6049.7 ± 11.9e
Years of dialysis before transplantation
    mean4.09 ± 3.971074 (3.6)3.46 ± 3.00
    body mass index (kg/m2)25.7 ± 24.84906 (16.6)26.5 ± 5.4e
    history of PD (versus HD)9942 (33.6)Presumed 034 (0.3)d
    transfusion before transplantation (Y/N)15,712 (54.4)Presumed 074 (0.7)d
Cause of ESRD
    Diabetes7145 (28.2)4220 (14.3)45 (0.6)d
Transplant-related factors
    Donor age (y)36.4 ± 16.12616 (8.8)38.2 ± 14.2e
    graft loss (versus continued graft function)2025 (6.8)Presumed 023 (1.2)d
    cadaveric donor (versus living donor)22,896 (77.4)0130 (0.6)d
    kidney-liver transplant (versus all other transplant types)100 (0.3)04 (4.0)d
    pump used for donor kidney2584 (12.0)7352 (25.4)15 (0.6)
    dialysis in the first week posttransplantation (delayed graft function versus absence of delayed graft function)6494 (22.1)198 (0.7)44 (0.7)d
    previous transplant (versus primary transplant)3857 (13.2)293 (1.0)7 (0.2)d
    donor history of alcohol use3973 (18.8)7753 (26.8)33 (0.8)d
    donor history of illicit drug use258 (1.2)7606 (26.3)34 (0.9)
Induction immunosuppression
    induction thymoglobulin726 (2.5)Presumed 05 (0.7)
    induction OKT34424 (15.3)Presumed 010 (0.2)d
    induction IL-2 antibody (daclizumab or basiliximab)7030 (24.3)Presumed 039 (0.6)
    induction methylprednisolone18,648 (64.5)Presumed 092 (0.5)
Immunosuppression at discharge
    cyclosporine14,037 (48.5)Presumed 074 (0.5)
    tacrolimus7526 (26.0)Presumed 046 (0.6)
    azathioprine4641 (16.0)Presumed 014 (0.3)d
    mycophenolate13,678 (47.3)Presumed 063 (0.5)
    sirolimus1036 (3.6)Presumed 06 (0.6)
    thymoglobulin41 (0.1)Presumed 00
    OKT3371 (1.3)Presumed 00
    prednisone27,423 (94.8)Presumed 0133 (0.5)
Baseline laboratory value or history of condition in previous 10 y
    alcohol use (versus absence)156 (0.9)12,622 (42.6)4 (2.6)d
    drug abuse105 (0.6)12,622 (42.6)4 (3.8)d
    smoking (versus nonsmoking)892 (5.8)12,622 (42.6)11 (1.1)d
    hematocrit (%)28.1 ± 5.813,757 (46.5)27.7 ± 5.6e
    serum albumin (gm/dl)3.4 ± 0.715,919 (53.8)3.2 ± 0.7