Table 1. Frequency of demographics and surgical characteristics according to 30-d mortalitya

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a Values are expressed as mean ± SD: BMI, body mass index; EuroSCORE, European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; PAPsyst, systolic pulmonary artery pressure; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CRF, chronic renal failure; CPB, cardiopulmonary bypass; CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; TAA, thoracic aortic; IABP, intra-aortic balloon pump.
Demographics
    no. of patients (n)3906212
    male/female (n)2548/1358124/88
    age (yr)64 ± 1369 ± 12
    BMI26.5 ± 425.7 ± 4
    EuroSCORE5.5 ± 3.18.4 ± 3.4
    logistic EuroSCORE7.1 ± 8.215.4 ± 14.1
Preoperative risk indicators
    LVEF <50%2024196460 (3%)
    LVEF <30%27223042 (15%)
    angina stable1287124443 (3%)
    congestive heart failure65658967 (10%)
    cardiogenic shock987820 (20%)
    PAPsyst >60 mmHg19517322 (11%)
    diabetes86580560 (7%)
    COPD45742037 (8%)
    extracardiac arteriopathy24622323 (9%)
Medication
    diuretics13421241101 (8%)
    infection47398 (17%)
Surgical characteristics
    anesthesia (min)315 ± 79380 ± 138
    surgery (min)224 ± 72284 ± 132
    CPB (min)100 ± 60139 ± 87
    aortic cross-clamp (min)62 ± 3873 ± 47
    urgent surgery47742057 (12%)
    emergent surgery22719829 (13%)
    CABG-CPB1608154662 (4%)
    off pump CABG4154078 (2%)
    combined procedure59053753 (9%)
    valve surgery1296122274 (6%)
    TAA surgery20919415 (7%)
    reoperation38234537 (19%)
    revision ≤48 h12910920 (16%)
    revision >48 h30427331 (10%)
    IABP after CPB1158431 (27%)
    inotropics after CPB14781338140 (10%)