Appendix: multifactorial risk indices for the prediction of outcome after cardiac surgerya

EuroSCOREMaximum Points
a CABG, coronary artery bypass graft; EF, ejection fraction; PA, pulmonary artery.
Age (yr)
Female gender11
Emergency operation (same day)22
Chronic pulmonary disease
    long-term use of either bronchodilators or steroids11
Extracardiac arteriopathy
    claudication or carotid occlusion or stenosis ≥50% or previous or planned surgery of abdominal aorta, limb arteries or carotis22
Neurological dysfunction (severely affecting ambulation or day-to-day function)22
Previous cardiac surgery (requiring opening of the pericardium)33
Serum creatinine >200 μmol/L22
Active endocarditis
    still under antibiotics at time of surgery33
Critical preoperative state
    any of the following:
    ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation
    aborted sudden death
    previous cardiac massage
    preoperative ventilation
    preoperative inotropics
    intra-aortic counterpulsation
    acute renal failure (anuria or oliguria <10 ml/h)33
Unstable angina (requiring intravenous nitrates)22
Left ventricular function
    EF 30–50%1
    EF <30%33
Recent myocardial infarction (<90 d)22
Pulmonary hypertension (systemic PA pressure >60 mmHg)22
Operation other than isolated CABG22
Surgery on thoracic aorta
    ascending, arch, or descending33
    Postinfarct septal rupture44
Maximum points44