Table 3. Clinical, biochemical, and bone characteristics of patients as a function of positive (+) and negative (−) bone aluminum staininga

VariableBone Al+Bone Al−P value
(n = 33)(n = 25)
a AC, arterial calcification; HD, hemodialysis; BP, blood pressure; CRP, C-reactive protein; PTX, parathyroidectomy; Al, aluminum; DFO, deferroxamine. Comparison by Wilcoxon test.
AC score3 (0–4)1 (0–4)0.006
Age (yr)58 (29–75)48 (23–75)0.043
Duration of HD (mo)145 (12–304)121 (12–204)0.029
Smoking (pack-yr)4.5 (0–32)0 (0–51)NS
Systolic BP (mmHg)158 (89–193)156 (99–199)NS
Diastolic BP (mmHg)84.5 (55–108)82 (48–104)NS
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.55 (3.4–7.95)4.75 (2.1–6.53)0.011
Serum albumin (g/L)38 (34–44)39.3 (33–43)0.023
Serum CRP (mg/L)9 (1–30)6.1 (0.9–41)NS
PTX (yes/no)16/317/22NS
Serum Ca (mmol/L)2.45 (2.22–2.69)2.36 (2.0–2.60)0.012
Serum PO4 (mmol/L)2.08 (1.45–315)1.87 (1.06–2.84)NS
Serum 25 (OH)D3 (nmol/L)51.5 (10–103)43 (5–609)NS
Serum Al (μmol/L)1.75 (0.5–5.0)0.90 (0.20–2.40)0.0001
Peak serum Al after DFO (μmol/L)5.15 (0.9–10.9)1.8 (0.4–6.1)0.0001
Δ Al after DFO (μmol/L)3.2 (0.2–7.2)0.95 (0.1–3.9)0.0001
PTH (pg/ml)158 (3–670)316 (44–1838)0.004
CaCO3 (g elemental Ca/d)2.4 (0–4.8)1.75 (0–4.6)0.007
1,25 (OH)2D3 (μg/d)0 (0–0.87)0.125 (0–1.35)NS
Osteoclast resorption (%)0.75 (0–6.02)2.18 (0–6.32)0.022
Osteoclasts (n/mm2)0.74 (0–3.71)1.21 (0–4.90)NS
Osteoblast surface (%)3.70 (0–18.3)9.12 (0–29.85)0.047
Double-labeled surface (%)1.5 (0–24.3)9.00 (0–28.8)0.035
Al-stained surface (%)55.0 (5.4–100)0 (0–0)0.0001