Table 1. Characteristics of study population at the third examination (1993 to 1995), by absence/presence of renal dysfunction and retinopathya

Development of Renal DysfunctionbRetinopathy
No (n = 9786)Yes (n = 270)PNo (n = 9491)Yes (n = 687)P
a Data are means (± SE) or proportions.
b Development of renal dysfunction defined as a 0.4-mg/dl increase in serum creatinine or deaths or hospitalizations for chronic renal diseases between the second and fourth examinations.
c Adjusted for age, gender, race, and field center.
Age (yr)59.7 ± 0.161.8 ± 0.3<0.00159.7 ± 0.160.3 ± 0.20.005
Men43.958.5<0.00144.246.00.36
Black19.125.90.00518.734.2<0.001
High school graduatec82.477.80.0482.378.50.009
Diabetesc12.832.0<0.00111.639.6<0.001
Fasting glucose (mg/dl)c106.8 ± 0.4128.5 ± 2.1<0.001107.0 ± 0.4144.5 ± 1.4<0.001
Hypertensionc37.663.9<0.00137.751.8<0.001
Systolic BP (mm Hg)c123.3 ± 0.2129.9 ± 1.1<0.001123.3 ± 0.2127.6 ± 0.7<0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg)c71.6 ± 0.172.3 ± 5.90.27471.7 ± 0.171.4 ± 0.40.38
Total plasma cholesterol (mg/dl)c207.5 ± 0.4211.5 ± 2.20.08207.6 ± 0.4206.5 ± 1.40.45
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)c52.4 ± 0.248.3 ± 1.0<0.00152.4 ± 0.249.9 ± 0.6<0.001
Total triglyceride (mg/dl)c141.2 ± 0.9175.9 ± 5.3<0.001141.1 ± 0.9155.0 ± 3.3<0.001
Current cigarette smokersc16.320.70.0516.316.60.87
Current alcohol usersc55.044.2<0.00154.949.10.002