Table 3. Six-year change in serum creatinine and development of renal dysfunction, by absence/presence of retinal microvascular abnormalitiesa

No. at RiskSix-Year Change in Serum CreatinineDevelopment of Renal Dysfunction
Age-Gender-Race (Mean [SE])bPMultivariable (Mean [SE])cP%Age-Gender-Race (OR [95% CI])dMultivariable (OR [95% CI])c
a OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
b Mean change (standard error) in serum creatinine (mg/dl) from the second to the fourth examinations associated with a specific retinal lesion, in analysis of covariance models adjusted for age, gender, race, and field center.
c Multivariable-adjusted for age, gender, race, field center, diabetes, fasting glucose levels, antihypertensive medication use, mean arterial BP averaged over 6 yr, body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and fasting HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
d OR (95% CI) of developing of renal dysfunction (0.4-mg/dl or more increase in serum creatinine or deaths or hospitalizations for renal diseases between the second and fourth examinations) associated with a specific retinal lesion, in logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, race, and field center.
RetinopathyAbsent94910.023 (0.003)<0.0010.024 (0.003)<0.0012.31.01.0
Present6870.085 (0.012)0.072 (0.012)7.73.1 (2.3 to 4.3)2.0 (1.4 to 2.8)
    microaneurysmAbsent91050.023 (0.003)<0.0010.023 (0.003)<0.0012.31.01.0
Present3400.133 (0.017)0.118 (0.018)9.94.0 (2.7 to 5.9)2.0 (1.3 to 3.1)
    retinal hemorrhageAbsent98420.024 (0.003)<0.0010.024 (0.003)<0.0012.31.01.0
Present3060.119 (0.018)0.102 (0.019)11.44.8 (3.2 to 7.1)2.6 (1.6 to 4.0)
    soft exudatesAbsent98850.024 (0.003)<0.0010.024 (0.003)<0.0012.51.01.0
Present1450.169 (0.026)0.153 (0.027)14.25.5 (3.2 to 9.4)2.7 (1.6 to 4.8)
Arteriovenous nickingAbsent86310.023 (0.003)0.0010.023 (0.003)0.0042.41.01.0
Present13710.053 (0.008)0.049 (0.008)4.11.6 (1.2 to 2.1)1.4 (1.0 to 1.9)
Focal arteriolar narrowingAbsent83920.026 (0.003)0.710.026 (0.003)0.902.61.01.0
Present14360.029 (0.008)0.025 (0.008)2.91.0 (0.7 to 1.4)0.9 (0.6 to 1.3)
Arteriole-to-venule ratioQuintile 2–594690.019 (0.004)0.0010.020 (0.004)0.0062.51.01.0
Quintile 118930.047 (0.007)0.042 (0.007)2.71.0 (0.7 to 1.4)0.8 (0.6 to 1.1)