Table 4. Six-year change in serum creatinine and development of renal dysfunction, by presence/absence of retinopathy, stratified by diabetes and hypertension status

Diabetes and Hypertension StatusRetinopathyNo. at RiskSix-Year Change in Serum CreatinineDevelopment of Renal Dysfunction
Multivariable-Adjusted (Mean [SE])aPb%Multivariable-Adjusted (OR [95% CI])c
a Mean change (SE) in serum creatinine (mg/dl) from the second to the fourth examinations (6 yr) associated with retinopathy in analysis of covariance models.
b P value represents difference in mean change in serum creatinine comparing presence versus absence of retinopathy.
c OR (95% CI) of developing of renal dysfunction associated with retinopathy in logistic regression models. All models include adjustment for age, gender, race, field center, fasting glucose levels, antihypertensive medication use, mean arterial BP averaged over 6 yr, body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and fasting HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Models in the subgroups with “no hypertension” and with “hypertension” included additional adjustment for diabetes status.
No diabetesAbsent82870.017 (0.002)0.322.01.0
Present3960.028 (0.011)3.51.6 (0.9 to 2.7)
DiabetesAbsent10640.063 (0.020)
Present2740.172 (0.040)13.92.6 (1.6 to 4.3)
No hypertensionAbsent58810.009 (0.003)
Present2950.032 (0.012)5.42.9 (1.6 to 5.4)
HypertensionAbsent34580.047 (0.007)
Present3720.109 (0.023)9.71.6 (1.1 to 2.5)
No diabetes or hypertensionAbsent54020.008 (0.003)0.751.01.0
Present2100.013 (0.013)2.42.1 (0.8 to 5.5)
Both diabetes and hypertensionAbsent5970.009 (0.034)
Present1890.213 (0.061)14.32.1 (1.2 to 3.8)