Table 3.

Trends in prevalence of CKD by survey year and estimated number in 2000a

CKDPrevalence (%)Prevalence Ratio (95% CI)cNo. in U.S. in 2000d, Thousands (95% CI)
StageDescription1988–1994b1999–2000b
1GFR ≥90 and persistent albuminuriae2.22.81.26 (1.00–1.59)5600 (4000–7200)
2GFR 60–89 and persistent albuminuriae2.22.81.27 (1.00–1.61)5700 (4200–7200)
3GFR 30–594.23.70.88 (0.67–1.10)7400 (6000–8900)
4GFR 15–290.190.13f0.68 (0.07–1.44)300 (24–500)
TotalStages 1–48.89.41.07 (0.93–1.22)19,000 (16,300–21,600)
  • a CKD, chronic kidney disease; CI, confidence interval; MEC, mobile examination center; ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; NHANES, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. GFR in ml/min per 1.73 m2.

  • b MEC examined respondents with nonmissing serum creatinine measures and estimated GFR > 15 and for albuminuria nonmissing ACR data, nonpregnant and not in menses.

  • c Bootstrap CI estimates include variability in the persistence estimates of albuminuria but assume persistence to be the same in the two surveys.

  • d Based on NHANES 1999–2000 prevalence and 200,948,641 adults age 20 yr and older in 2000 census.

  • e Persistence assumptions: 50.9% of those with microalbuminuria and GFR ≥90 (n = 57); 75.0% of those with microalbuminuria and GFR 60 to 89 (n = 36); 100% of those with macroalbuminuria. ACR categories: < 30 mg/g (none); 30 to 299 mg/g (microalbuminuria); ≥ 300 mg/g (macroalbuminuria). If gender-specific ACR categories (men: < 17 mg/g [none]; 17 to 250 mg/g [microalbuminuria]; > 250 mg/g [macroalbuminuria]; women: < 25 mg/g [none]; 25 to 355 mg/g [microalbuminuria]; > 355 mg/g [macroalbuminuria]) and persistence rates (53.9% for microalbuminuria and 72.7% for macroalbuminuria) are used, then the prevalence estimates for 1988 to 1994 and 1999 to 2000 are 3.2 and 3.8% for stage 1 and 3.0 and 4.0% for stage 2. The gender-specific albuminuria stages 1 to 4 prevalence totals are 10.6 ± 0.5% in 1988 to 1994 and 11.7 ± 0.8% in 1999 to 2000.

  • f Does not meet the standards for statistical reliability and precision (relative SE > 30%).