Table 1.

Causes of renal failure in cancer patientsa

Prerenal
    extracellular fluid depletion (poor intake, vomiting, diarrhea, hypercalcemia)
    hepatorenal syndrome (veno-occlusive disease, hepatic resection)
    drugs (calcineurin inhibitors, nonsteroidals)
Intrinsic
    glomerular
        membranous nephropathy
        amyloidosis (multiple myeloma)
        pamidronate-associated collapsing glomerulopathy (incidence unknown)
        light-chain deposition disease
    tubulointerstitial
        acute tubular necrosis (toxic/ischemic)
        lymphomatous infiltration of the kidney
        light-chain deposition disease
        drugs (cisplatin, ifosfamide)
        intravenous contrast
        cast nephropathy (multiple myeloma)
    vascular
        thrombotic-thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic- uremic syndrome (post-HCT, gemcitabine, mitomycin C)
        tumor infiltration (renal cell carcinoma with renal vein thrombosis)
Postrenal
    intratubular obstruction
        uric acid nephropathy
        methotrexate
        cast nephropathy (multiple myeloma)
    extrarenal obstruction
        bladder outlet, ureteral (primary disease, retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, retroperitoneal fibrosis)
  • a HCT, hematopoietic cell transplant.