Table 2.

Categorical risk factors in patients with or without ARF that required dialysisa

Risk Factors (Test Set: N = 15,838)ARF-Dialysis (N = 269)No ARF (N = 15,569)P Value
Gender<0.001
    female (n = 4877)111 (41.3%)4766 (30.6%)
    male (n = 10,961)158 (58.7%)10,803 (69.4%)
Race0.033
    white (n = 14,142)236 (87.7%)13,906 (89.3%)
    black (n = 609)17 (6.3%)592 (3.8%)
    other (n = 1087)16 (6.0%)1071 (6.9%)
Preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump<0.001
    yes (n = 239)18 (6.7%)221 (1.4%)
    no (n = 15,599)251 (93.3%)15,348 (98.6%)
Congestive heart failure<0.001
    yes (n = 4,221)145 (53.9%)4076 (26.2%)
    no (n = 11,617)124 (46.1%)11,493 (73.8%)
Ejection fraction <35%<0.001
    yes (n = 1784)64 (23.8%)1,720 (11.1%)
    no (n = 14,054)205 (76.2%)13,849 (88.9%)
Surgery<0.001
    CABG (n = 8314)87 (32.3%)8227 (52.8%)
    valve surgery (n = 4068)65 (24.2%)4003 (25.7%)
    CABG + valve (n = 2594)88 (32.7%)2506 (16.1%)
    other cardiac surgery (n = 862)29 (10.8%)833 (5.4%)
Previous cardiac surgery<0.001
    yes (n = 3444)98 (36.4%)12,223 (78.5%)
    no (n = 12,394)171 (63.6%)3,346 (21.5%)
Emergency surgery<0.001
    yes (n = 474)31 (11.5%)443 (2.9%)
    no (n = 15,364)238 (88.5%)15,126 (97.2%)
Diabetes mellitus<0.001
    insulin requiring (n = 1392)47 (17.5%)1345 (8.6%)
    non-insulin requiring (n = 2465)46 (17.1%)2419 (15.5%)
    none (n = 11,981)176 (65.4%)11,805 (75.8%)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease<0.001
    yes (n = 1326)48 (17.8%)1278 (8.2%)
    no (n = 14,512)221 (82.2%)14,291 (91.8%)
Peripheral vascular disease<0.001
    yes (n = 1896)57 (21.2%)1839 (11.8%)
    no (n = 13,942)212 (78.8%)13,730 (88.2%)
Cerebrovascular disease<0.001
    yes (n = 2713)76 (28.3%)2637 (16.9%)
    no (n = 13,125)193 (71.8%)12,932 (83.1%)
  • a ARF, acute renal failure; CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting.