Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of study populationa

EuropeanSouth AsianAfrican-Caribbean
Men (n = 1015)Women (n = 445)Men (n = 741)Women (n = 205)Men (n = 284)Women (n = 275)
Age (SD)53.9 (7.1)53.2 (6.6)51.9 (7.3)50.6 (6.7)54.0 (5.8)53.2 (5.8)
Age-adjusted averages (95% CI)
    systolic BP (mmHg [median])122.9 (121.2 to 124.6)119.3 (116.9 to 121.7)126.8 (124.9 to 128.7)126.6 (123.3 to 129.9)128.2 (125.2 to 131.1)134.3 (131.3 to 137.3)
    diastolic BP (mmHg [median])77.8 (77.0 to 78.6)75.5 (74.3 to 76.7)81.8 (80.9 to 82.7)78.6 (77.0 to 80.3)83.1 (81.6 to 84.6)85.1 (83.7 to 86.6)
    mean arterial pressure (mmHg [median])92.3 (91.4 to 93.2)90.5 (89.3 to 91.7)96.3 (95.2 to 97.3)94.4 (93.1 to 95.8)99.7 (98.2 to 101.1)97.8 (96.4 to 99.3)
    BMI (means)25.8 (25.6 to 26.0)26.9 (26.6 to 27.2)26.0 (25.7 to 26.2)26.9 (26.6 to 27.2)27.3 (26.9 to 27.6)28.2 (27.9 to 28.6)
    waist-to-hip ratio (mean)0.94 (0.93 to 0.94)0.82 (0.81 to 0.82)0.99 (0.98 to 0.99)0.84 (0.83 to 0.84)0.96 (0.95 to 0.96)0.84 (0.83 to 0.84)
    height (cm [mean])174.4 (174.1 to 174.8)161.0 (160.6 to 161.5)169.2 (168.8 to 169.6)155.9 (155.4 to 156.4)173.1 (172.6 to 173.6)159.8 (159.3 to 160.3)
    waist (cm [mean])91.8 (91.1 to 92.5)79.9 (78.8 to 81.0)93.4 (92.7 to 94.2)86.1 (84.4 to 87.7)89.1 (87.9 to 90.3)88.3 (87.0 to 89.7)
    triglycerides (geometric mean; mmol/L)1.46 (1.41 to 1.50)1.29 (1.24 to 1.34)1.72 (1.66 to 1.78)1.52 (1.45 to 1.59)1.15 (1.09 to 1.21)1.01 (0.97 to 1.07)
    HDL (geometric mean; mmol/L)1.26 (1.24 to 1.28)1.55 (1.52 to 1.59)1.15 (1.13 to 1.17)1.41 (1.38 to 1.45)1.38 (1.35 to 1.41)1.70 (1.66 to 1.74)
    fasting glucose (median; mmol/L)5.39 (5.33 to 5.44)5.29 (5.21 to 5.36)5.58 (5.52 to 5.65)5.18 (5.07 to 5.28)5.69 (5.59 to 5.79)5.62 (5.53 to 5.72)
    fasting insulin (median; pmol/L)7.14 (6.79 to 7.49)5.29 (4.83 to 5.75)11.74 (11.35 to 12.14)7.67 (7.02 to 8.32)8.97 (8.35 to 9.59)9.91 (9.35 to 10.49)
    HOMA insulin resistance (median)1.78 (1.64 to 1.85)1.27 (1.12 to 1.41)2.90 (2.78 to 3.01)1.77 (1.56 to 1.97)2.23 (2.05 to 2.42)2.51 (2.33 to 2.69)
Age-standardized prevalences (95% CI)
    microalbuminuria (AER 20 to 199 μg/min)5.9 (4.5 to 7.4)2.7 (1.2 to 4.1)6.0 (4.2 to 7.7)2.7 (0.4 to 5.0)6.8 (3.9 to 9.8)7.3 (4.3 to 10.3)
    impaired fasting glucoseb9.2 (7.4 to 11.0)8.6 (6.0 to 11.2)7.5 (2.5 to 12.6)1.6 (0 to 3.2)13.7 (9.6 to 17.7)11.0 (7.2 to 14.9)
    impaired glucose to lerancec1.8 (0.9 to 2.6)4.3 (2.4 to 6.2)3.3 (2.0 to 4.6)8.1 (4.0 to 12.2)8.3 (5.0 to 11.7)8.8 (5.3 to 12.3)
    diabetesd7.8 (6.1 to 8.7)4.8 (2.8 to 6.822.6 (19.6 to 25.7)17.5 (11.9 to 23.2)18.0 (13.5 to 22.5)17.2 (12.8 to 21.5)
    receiving medication for hypertension9.2 (7.5 to 10.9)11.1 (8.2 to 13.9)15.9 (13.2 to 18.6)15.7 (10.3 to 21.1)18.8 (14.4 to 23.3)28.8 (23.5 to 34.1)
    major Q waves and/or LBBB on ECG5.1 (3.8 to 6.4)2.0 (0.7 to 3.4)5.0 (3.4 to 6.6)1.5 (0 to 3.5)2.6 (0.8 to 4.4)1.3 (0 to 2.6)
    previously diagnosed (by doctor) CHD8.4 (6.7 to 10.0)3.8 (2.0 to 5.5)8.2 (6.1 to 10.2)0.5 (0 to 1.6)3.1 (1.1 to 5.1)2.9 (0.8 to 4.9)
    CHD, defined by major ECG changes and/or previous diagnosis11.2 (9.3 to 13.1)5.6 (3.5 to 7.8)10.8 (8.5 to 13.1)2.0 (0 to 4.3)5.0 (2.5 to 7.5)4.2 (1.8 to 6.6)
    short height for weighte16.9 (15.2 to 18.7)18.4 (15.2 to 21.6)16.2 (14.3 to 18.2)21.6 (16.8 to 26.4)15.6 (12.2 to 19.1)18.0 (14.0 to 22.1)
    current/former smoker68.8 (66.0 to 71.7)51.1 (46.5 to 55.8)22.3 (19.3 to 25.3)2.5 (0.3 to 4.7)44.3 (38.4 to 50.1)14.4 (10.1 to 18.8)
    manual occupation64.5 (61.5 to 67.5)55.1 (50.4 to 59.8)72.5 (69.2 to 75.7)74.6 (67.7 to 81.4)85.4 (81.1 to 89.7)61.6 (55.8 to 67.3)
    years of education (% with ≥11 yr)38.2 (35.2 to 41.2)41.9 (37.4 to 46.5)70.4 (66.0 to 73.8)45.0 (36.8 to 53.2)54.5 (48.8 to 62.9)52.4 (46.3 to 58.4)
    CHD deaths (n; rate/1000 person yr)59 (4.3)9 (1.5)47 (4.5)1 (0.34)4 (1.05)1 (0.28)
  • a CI, confidence interval; BMI, body mass index; HOMA, homeostasis model assessment; AER, albumin excretion rate; LBB, left bundle branch block; ECG, electrocardiogram; CHD, coronary heart disease.

  • b Defined as fasting glucose ≥6.1 and <7.0 mmol/L (22).

  • c Defined as fasting glucose <7.0 mmol/L and 2 h glucose >7.8 and <11.1 mmol/L (22).

  • d Includes people with known diabetes and those with newly diagnosed diabetes by World Health Organization 1999 criteria (fasting glucose ≥7 mmol/L or 2 h glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L.

  • e Below median for height and above median for weight (ethnicity- and gender-specific medians).