Table 2.

Multivariable association of the risk for death from any cause in Asians and Pacific Islanders compared with white individuals

ModelAsian or Pacific Islander versus White Hazard Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
JapaneseChineseFilipinoHawaiianSamoanChamorroOther PIaN.CA A/PIb
Unadjusted0.67 (0.60 to 0.75)0.65 (0.53 to 0.79)0.54 (0.48 to 0.61)0.63 (0.55 to 0.72)0.40 (0.31 to 0.51)0.74 (0.64 to 0.86)0.59 (0.46 to 0.75)0.57 (0.54 to 0.60)
Adjusted for age and gender0.61 (0.55 to 0.68)0.58 (0.48 to 0.71)0.60 (0.53 to 0.67)0.82 (0.72 to 0.94)0.56 (0.43 to 0.72)0.99 (0.85 to 1.15)0.81 (0.63 to 1.03)0.59 (0.56 to 0.63)
Additional adjustment for insurance statusc and employment statusd0.63 (0.57 to 0.70)0.60 (0.49 to 0.73)0.60 (0.54 to 0.68)0.83 (0.73 to 0.95)0.56 (0.43 to 0.72)1.01 (0.87 to 1.17)0.80 (0.63 to 1.03)0.58 (0.55 to 0.62)
Additional adjustment for primary cause of ESRD and comorbid conditionse0.64 (0.58 to 0.72)0.63 (0.51 to 0.73)0.64 (0.57 to 0.72)0.80 (0.70 to 0.92)0.57 (0.44 to 0.74)0.98 (0.84 to 1.14)0.83 (0.63 to 1.06)0.62 (0.58 to 0.65)
Additional adjustment for serum creatinine, serum albumin, hematocrit, and predialysis erythropoietin usef0.68 (0.61 to 0.76)0.68 (0.56 to 0.83)0.67 (0.60 to 0.76)0.82 (0.70 to 0.93)0.61 (0.46 to 0.79)0.96 (0.82 to 1.12)0.83 (0.62 to 1.09)0.64 (0.60 to 0.68)
Additional adjustment for BMI and tobacco smoking0.64 (0.57 to 0.72)0.64 (0.52 to 0.78)0.64 (0.57 to 0.72)0.84 (0.72 to 0.96)0.62 (0.48 to 0.82)0.96 (0.84 to 1.20)0.81 (0.62 to 1.04)0.60 (0.56 to 0.63)
  • a Carolinian, Chuukese, Marshall Islands, Micronesian, Palauan, Pohnpean, Tongan, and Yapese.

  • b Registered in Network 17 with primary dialysis unit in Northern California.

  • c Medicare, Medicaid, uninsured, or other insurance.

  • d Employed part/full time, homemaker, retired, or unemployed.

  • e Alcohol dependence, cancer diagnosis, cardiac arrest, cardiac arrhythmia, cerebrovascular accident, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, drug dependence, hypertension, inability to ambulate, inability to transfer, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, and peripheral vascular disease.

  • f Values at initiation of dialysis.