Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of study participants, by gender and presence of SBI on cranial MRIa

CovariateWomen (n = 1684; n [%] or Mean [SD])Men (n = 1100; n [%] or Mean [SD])
≥1 Infarcts (n = 473)No Infarcts (n = 1211)P≥1 Infarcts (n = 316)No infarcts (n = 784)P
Age (yr)75.5 (4.9)74.4 (4.8)<0.00176.4 (5.6)75.0 (4.9)<0.001
Race0.60.6
    black79 (16.7%)214 (17.7%)47 (14.9%)127 (16.2%)
    white/other394 (83.3%)997 (82.3%)269 (85.1%)657 (83.8%)
Hypertension311 (65.6%)705 (58.2%)0.005186 (58.9%)413 (52.7%)0.06
SBP (mmHg)138.4 (22.6)134.0 (20.0)<0.001135.1 (20.7)133.3 (19.9)0.2
DBP (mmHg)71.1 (10.9)69.6 (10.4)0.00973.0 (11.2)71.8 (10.3)0.1
BMI (kg/m2)26.9 (5.1)26.9 (5.1)0.925.9 (3.5)26.7 (3.7)0.007
Diabetes54 (11.4%)146 (12.1%)0.749 (15.5%)123 (15.7%)0.9
Coronary heart disease84 (17.8%)173 (14.3%)0.0896 (30.4%)174 (22.2%)0.004
Atrial fibrillation8 (1.7%)22 (1.8%)0.911 (3.5%)27 (3.5%)0.9
Smoking status0.30.08
    current256 (54.1%)672 (55.5%)81 (25.6%)233 (29.7%)
    former164 (34.6%)434 (35.8%)196 (62.0%)485 (61.9%)
    never53 (11.2%)105 (8.7%)39 (12.3%)66 (8.5%)
Aspirin use before MRI36 (7.6%)81 (6.7%)0.535 (11.1%)68 (8.7%)0.2
SCr (mg/dl)0.96 (0.20)0.94 (0.20)0.051.25 (0.31)1.19 (0.31)0.001
CysC (mg/L)1.10 (0.29)1.05 (0.26)0.0041.20 (0.34)1.11 (0.26)<0.001
Estimated GFR (abbreviated MDRD formula [28])70.4 (18.6)71.7 (17.2)0.269.0 (19.1)72.7 (17.5)0.004
Time to walk 15 feet (s)6.3 (0.2)5.5 (0.1)<0.0015.5 (0.1)5.0 (0.1)<0.001
Grip strength (kg)22.5 (0.2)21.9 (0.3)0.135.8 (0.5)37.7 (0.3)0.001
  • a SBI, subclinical brain infarct; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; SBP, systolic BP; DBP, diastolic BP; BMI, body mas index; SCr, serum creatinine; CysC, cystatin C; MDRD, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease. See Materials and Methods for definitions of comorbid conditions.