Table 1.

Some mouse models of diabetes studied for diabetic nephropathya

Mouse Model (Reference No.)Strains Reported (Reference No.)DiabeticTypeAdvantagesDisadvantages
Streptozotocin (71,81,146,228232)C57BL/6J, C57BLKS, Balb/c, ICR, DBA2, ROPType 1Well established, reproducible timing; may be established in strains both resistant and susceptible to DNPotential for nonspecific toxicity; strain-dependent dosing necessary; biohazard: potential mutagen
Encephalomyocarditis virus D variant (153,233,234)DBA, Balb-CType 1May reproduce viral causes of type 1 diabetes in humans; DBA may be prone to DNPotential for nonspecific renal effects; strain-dependent dosing necessary; biohazard; not widely studied; renal functional effects not characterized
Ins2 Akita (84,88,89)C57BL/6, C3HType 1Commercially available (JAX); autosomal dominant mutationPresently only C57BL/6 commercially available; C57BL/6 relatively resistant to nephropathy; hyper-glycemia in females is mild
NOD (101,102,235,236)Inbred line derived from ICR (outbred line)Type 1Spontaneous development of β-cell failure may mimic pathophysiology of disease in humans (99); commercially availableUnpredictable timing of development of diabetes; no appropriate control strain; needs insulin therapy to survive long periods; multigenic-cause diabetes precludes easy intercrosses
Db/db (22,134)C57BL/6, C57BLKS, DBA, FVB (129), CBA (237)Type 2Available on multiple strains; commercially availableInfertile; autosomal recessive; mutation in leptin receptor is a very rare cause of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans
Ob/ob (21)C57BL/6 (238), FVB/N (238), DBA2 (239,240)Type 2Exists on diverse inbred strains; nephropathy uncharacterized; commercially availableInfertility—can be circumvented with leptin; autosomal recessive; nephropathy uncharacterized; mutation of leptin is a very rare cause of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans
Agouti (Ay)KK (170,241,242), C57BL (243), C3H (243), FVB (244)Type 2KK strain is susceptible to renal injury with significant albuminuria; autosomal dominant; commercially availableHyperglycemia moderate in males more than in females; onset of diabetes is not well defined; nephropathy may not be robust in strains other than KK
High-fat diet (112)C57BL/6 is main susceptible strain (245)Type 2Onset can be determined by the investigatorOnly C57BL/6 reported as susceptible; hyperglycemia not prominent
  • a DN, diabetic nephropathy.