Table 3.

Multivariate Cox regression analysis results for all-cause mortalitya

Adjusted HR (95% CI)P Value
Age (per 10-yr increase)1.40 (1.30–1.50)<0.001
Race
    whiteReference
    black0.71 (0.52–0.97)0.029
    other0.63 (0.36–1.09)0.097
Gender
    maleReference
    female0.67 (0.45–1.00)0.051
Past medical history
    diabetes1.25 (1.10–1.42)<0.001
    ischemic heart disease1.14 (0.98–1.32)0.089
    congestive heart failure1.66 (1.45–1.90)<0.001
    cerebrovascular disease1.18 (1.00–1.40)0.044
    acute renal failure1.45 (1.19–1.78)<0.001
Elemental calcium from prescribed medications
    noneReference
    1–500 mg/d1.18 (0.98, 1.43)0.081
    >500 mg/d1.01 (0.76–1.35)0.926
Baseline creatinine (per 1-mg/dl increase; equivalent to 88-μmol/L increase)1.38 (1.28–1.49)<0.001
Hemoglobin (per 0.1-g/L increase)0.87 (0.83–0.91)<0.001
Calcium (per 0.25-mmol/L increase)1.02 (0.90–1.16)0.747
Phosphate (per 1-mg/dl increase; equivalent to 0.323-mmol/L increase)1.23 (1.12–1.36)b<0.001
1.24 (1.13–1.37)c<0.001
1.33 (1.15–1.54)d<0.001
  • a HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval.

  • b Adjusted for all variables listed in the table.

  • c Adjusted for all variables listed in the table plus the inverse of baseline creatinine, time-averaged creatinine (area under the curve), slope of creatinine, and maximal creatinine level during the baseline period (model 2).

  • d Adjusted for all variables in model 2 plus systolic and diastolic BP; body mass index; number of previous hospitalizations; use of an ACE inhibitor, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, a statin, or a calcium channel blocker; and time-averaged values of albumin, bicarbonate, and triglycerides (model 3).