Table 1.

Characteristicsa of Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study participants by level of estimated GFR (≥90, 60 to 89, and 15 to 59 ml/min per 1.73 m2)b

Risk FactorEstimated GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)P Trend
≥90 (n = 7213)60–89 (n = 9878)15–59 (n = 807)
Age (yr)53.454.356.1<0.001
Men (%)41.944.133.0<0.001
Black (%)38.617.321.8<0.001
Traditional risk factors
    current smoking (%)27.821.116.3<0.001
    physically active (%)23.825.825.70.001
    hypertension (%)31.135.257.2<0.001
    systolic BP (mmHg)122.0121.4125.10.217
    BMI (kg/m2)27.427.728.6<0.001
    obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2)24.726.733.0<0.001
    glucose (mg/dl)108.9108.8123.0<0.001
    diabetes (%)11.510.219.60.001
    total cholesterol (mg/dl)215.9217.5221.50.002
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)55.753.849.9<0.001
    log triglycerides, log (mg/dl)4.714.734.86<0.001
Nontraditional risk factors
    waist circumference96.496.899.5<0.001
    log Lp(a), log (mg/L)3.984.034.15<0.001
    apolipoprotein-A1 (mg/dl)136.7134.8129.5<0.001
    apolipoprotein-B (mg/dl)92.895.399.6<0.001
    anemia (%)7.96.713.90.023
    leukocyte count (109 cells/L)6.175.986.340.004
    serum albumin (mg/dl)3.853.873.820.358
    fibrinogen (mg/dl)306.4303.3322.20.249
  • a Prevalence and levels for all variables except age, gender, and race are standardized to the ARIC population with CKD (age, 56.1 yr; gender, 33.0% male; and 21.8% black race).

  • b Participants were permitted to be in two groups if they changed level of GFR at visit 2 (e.g., someone with an estimated GFR ≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at baseline and between 60 and 89 at visit 2 is counted in both the ≥90 and 60 to 89 ml/min per 1.73 m2 categories of this table with updated covariates at visit 2). At the ARIC baseline visit, 7213, 7252, and 391 ARIC participants had an estimated GFR ≥90, 60 to 89, and 15 to 59 ml/min per 1.73 m2, respectively. Of those with an estimated GFR ≥90 at visit 1, 2626 participants had an estimated GFR between 60 and 89 at visit 2, and 416 participants with an estimated GFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at visit 1 had an estimated GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at visit 2. ARIC, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities; BMI, body mass index.