Table 3.

Adjusted relative risks of a major CHD event (myocardial infarction incidence, fatal coronary heart disease, or coronary revascularization) associated with selected CHD risk factors among ARIC study participants with CKD

Risk FactorAdjusted Relative Risk (95% CIa)
Age, Race, GenderbMultivariate Modelc
Age, 5 yr1.42 (1.20–1.68)1.33 (1.11–1.60)
Male gender2.68 (1.81–3.96)3.96 (2.52–6.21)
Black2.06 (0.67–6.36)1.79 (0.55–5.85)
Traditional risk factors
    current smoking1.65 (1.01–2.67)1.91 (1.16–3.15)
    physical activity0.79 (0.48–1.28)0.79 (0.48–1.31)
    hypertension2.02 (1.27–3.22)1.79 (1.11–2.89)
    systolic BP, 20 mmHg1.33 (1.13–1.57)1.26 (1.05–1.51)
    BMI, 5 kg/m21.25 (1.05–1.49)1.16 (0.97–1.39)
    obese1.52 (1.02–2.28)1.23 (0.82–1.86)
    glucose, 40 mg/dl1.31 (1.20–1.43)1.26 (1.15–1.39)
    diabetes3.06 (2.01–4.67)2.88 (1.85–4.47)
    total cholesterol, 43 mg/dl1.50 (1.25–1.79)1.46 (1.25–1.70)
    HDL cholesterol, 17 mg/dl0.79 (0.62–1.01)0.93 (0.73–1.19)
    log triglycerides, 0.5 log (mg/dl)1.38 (1.15–1.65)1.12 (0.94–1.33)
Nontraditional risk factors
    waist circumference, 13 cm1.38 (1.13–1.69)1.24 (1.00–1.55)
    log Lp(a), 1.2 log (mg/L)1.24 (0.98–1.58)1.20 (0.94–1.53)
    apolipoprotein-A1, 31 mg/dl0.88 (0.70–1.12)0.99 (0.78–1.26)
    apolipoprotein-B, 29 mg/dl1.33 (1.13–1.56)1.28 (1.10–1.49)
    anemia1.96 (1.14–3.36)2.01 (1.19–3.42)
    leukocyte count, 1.9 × 109 cells/L1.24 (1.06–1.46)1.10 (0.91–1.34)
    serum albumin, 0.332 mg/dl0.65 (0.54–0.79)0.76 (0.63–0.92)
    fibrinogen, 69 mg/dl1.38 (1.19–1.59)1.23 (1.07–1.41)
  • a CI, confidence interval.

  • b Adjusted for age, race, gender, and field center.

  • c Additionally adjusted for current smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and total cholesterol.