Table 1.

Baseline patient characteristics on December 31, 1999a

CharacteristicPatients by Diabetes/CKD GroupCKD
All Patients (n = 1,091,201; 100%)Non-Diabetes/Non-CKD (n = 869,902; 79.7%)Diabetes/Non-CKD (n = 179,777; 16.5%)Non-Diabetes/CKD (n = 23,573; 2.2%)Diabetes/CKD (n = 17,949; 1.6%)PbOR (95% CI)cPc
Diabetes18.1%0.0%100%0.0%100%2.04 (2.00–2.09)<0.0001
Age on December 31, 1999 (yr)<0.0001
    67–6916.0%16.4%15.5%9.0%12.7%1
    70–7427.8%27.8%28.8%20.7%26.0%1.05 (1.01–1.09)0.0078
    75–7924.5%24.2%26.1%23.5%27.5%1.08 (1.04–1.12)<0.0001
    ≥8031.6%31.6%29.6%46.7%33.8%1.10 (1.06–1.14)<0.0001
Gender<0.0001
    male39.2%38.5%40.7%48.5%46.5%1.56 (1.53–1.59)<0.0001
    female60.8%61.5%59.3%51.5%53.5%1
Race<0.0001
    white89.0%90.4%83.5%86.9%79.3%1
    black7.1%6.2%10.8%9.8%13.9%1.40 (1.35–1.44)<0.0001
    other3.9%3.4%5.7%3.3%6.8%1.24 (1.18–1.30)<0.0001
Renal disease
    glomerulonephritis60.2%58.7%
    diabetes0.0%17.6%
    hypertension8.1%8.5%
    renovascular5.9%3.6%
    hydronephrosis12.7%5.8%
    urological malignancy7.3%2.9%
    other5.9%2.9%
Total hospital days, 1998–1999<0.0001
    none69.0%73.3%58.4%27.3%23.9%1
    1–414.2%13.5%17.2%18.8%15.8%1.90 (1.83–1.96)<0.0001
    5–96.1%5.3%8.3%13.7%11.9%2.52 (2.43–2.61)<0.0001
    10–196.0%4.8%8.8%18.8%18.6%3.22 (3.11–3.34)<0.0001
    ≥204.7%3.1%7.3%21.4%29.8%4.62 (4.45–4.79)<0.0001
Comorbidity
    AMI2.5%1.8%4.2%8.4%12.1%<0.0001NDND
    CVA/TIA12.3%10.3%18.2%25.6%31.8%<0.0001NDND
    PVD12.0%9.6%18.0%32.6%38.6%<0.0001NDND
    ASVDd21.8%18.2%32.0%48.1%57.3%<0.00011.42 (1.38–1.45)<0.0001
    anemia16.7%14.1%21.9%47.0%51.7%<0.00012.13 (2.08–2.18)<0.0001
    CHF13.8%10.5%22.4%39.9%54.1%<0.00011.96 (1.91–2.01)<0.0001
    cancer19.2%18.5%19.7%36.2%26.3%<0.00011.44 (1.41–1.48)<0.0001
    COPD15.3%14.1%17.7%29.7%30.8%<0.00011.01 (0.98–1.03)0.4532
    gastrointestinal bleeding6.1%5.4%7.5%16.1%18.3%<0.00011.06 (1.03–1.10)<0.0001
    liver disease0.8%0.6%1.5%2.0%3.6%<0.00011.51 (1.41–1.62)<0.0001
    hypertension54.2%48.8%73.9%78.6%88.9%<0.00012.10 (2.04–2.16)<0.0001
Care indicators
    epoetin use0.5%0.3%0.4%3.8%4.3%<0.0001
    general urinalysis44.4%41.9%52.5%61.2%61.6%<0.0001
    microalbuminuria test1.7%0.3%7.9%0.9%10.2%<0.0001
    urinalysis for protein10.8%9.4%14.7%21.2%27.1%<0.0001
  • a Percentages indicate proportions within columns; italicized percentages within column headings indicate proportions of all patients. AMI, acute myocardial infarction; ASVD, atherosclerotic vascular disease; CHF, congestive heart failure; CI, confidence interval; CKD, chronic kidney disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CVA, cerebrovascular accident; ND, not determined; OR, odds ratio; PVD, peripheral vascular disease; TIA, transient ischemic attack.

  • b Using the χ

  • 2 test.

  • c Using logistic regression with the presence (coded as 1) or absence (coded as 0) of CKD as the dependent variable and diabetes, age, gender, race, hospital days in 1998 to 1999, ASVD, anemia, CHF, cancer, gastrointestinal bleeding, liver disease, and hypertension as exploratory variables. The reference categories were absence of diabetes, age 67 yo 69 yr, female gender, white race, no days in hospital in 1998 to 1999, and absence of comorbid conditions.

  • d ASVD was defined as the presence of AMI, CVA/TIA, or PVD.