Table 1.

Characteristics of patients with hemodialysis vascular access thrombosis and control subjectsa

CharacteristicPatients with Access Thrombosis (n = 107)Control Subjects (n = 312)P Value
Age (yr)60.6 ± 17.264.7 ± 16.00.03
Female gender (n [%])46 (43)112 (36)0.19
Race (n [%])0.22
    white90 (84.1)274 (87.8)
    black10 (9.3)14 (4.5)
    Asian1 (0.9)8 (2.6)
    other6 (5.6)16 (5.1)
Weight (kg)72.1 ± 18.972.4 ± 17.80.89
Body mass index25.5 ± 6.425.7 ± 5.60.86
Medical history (n [%])
    peripheral vascular disease29 (27.1)95 (30.4)0.51
    coronary artery disease42 (39.3)115 (36.9)0.66
    stroke7 (6.5)30 (9.6)0.33
    malignancy23 (21.5)51 (16.3)0.23
    venous thromboembolism7 (6.5)12 (3.8)0.28
    diabetes30 (28.0)105 (33.7)0.28
Cause of ESRD (n [%])0.39
    diabetes18 (16.8)73 (23.4)
    glomerulonephritis24 (22.4)62 (19.9)
    hypertension12 (11.2)47 (15.1)
    polycystic kidney disease8 (7.5)26 (8.3)
    urinary obstruction/reflux9 (8.4)13 (4.2)
    unknown16 (15.0)45 (14.4)
    other20 (18.7)46 (14.7)
Smoker (n [%])0.25
    never34 (31.8)103 (33.0)
    former48 (44.9)158 (50.6)
    current25 (23.4)51 (16.3)
Medications (n [%])
    ACE inhibitor32 (29.9)125 (40.1)0.06
    warfarin22 (20.6)41 (13.1)0.06
    antiplatelet agent41 (38.3)131 (42.0)0.51
    hormone replacement therapy or birth control pill8 (7.5)19 (6.1)0.61
Vitamin use (n [%])
    vitamin B124 (3.7)23 (7.4)0.19
    vitamin B63 (2.8)5 (1.6)0.43
    folic acid56 (52.3)173 (55.4)0.58
    multivitamin73 (68.2)237 (76.0)0.12
    vitamin B12, B6, folic acid, or multivitamin81 (75.7)260 (83.3)0.08
Family history of venous thromboembolism (n [%])4 (3.7)14 (4.5)0.74
Type of dialysis access (n [%])<0.001
    arteriovenous fistula81 (75.7)302 (96.8)
    arteriovenous graft26 (24.3)10 (3.2)
Location of dialysis access (n [%])0.003
    lower arm66 (61.7)153 (49.0)
    upper arm38 (35.5)158 (50.6)
    leg3 (2.8)1 (0.3)
Median time from access surgery to first cannulation (d)57550.76
Median time from access surgery to thrombosis or end of observation period (d)5481021<0.001
Dialysis access angiogram performed (n [%])56 (52.3)187 (59.9)0.17
Dialysis access angioplasty or surgical revision performed (n [%])50 (46.7)131 (42.0)0.39
Previous dialysis access created but never functioned (n [%])29 (27.1)59 (18.9)0.07
Hemoglobin (g/dl)11.6 ± 1.111.8 ± 1.10.09
Erythropoietin dose (units/wk)12104 ± 756712345 ± 90820.63
Albumin (g/dl)3.7 ± 0.53.6 ± 0.50.02
Urea reduction ratio73 ± 776 ± 6<0.001
  • ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme.